RFC 9500 Standard PKC Test Keys December 2023
Gutmann & Bonnell Informational [Page]
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
P. Gutmann
University of Auckland
C. Bonnell

RFC 9500

Standard Public Key Cryptography (PKC) Test Keys


This document provides a set of standard Public Key Cryptography (PKC) test keys that may be used wherever pre-generated keys and associated operations like digital signatures are required. Like the European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research (EICAR) virus test and the Generic Test for Unsolicited Bulk Email (GTUBE) spam test files, these publicly known test keys can be detected and recognised by applications consuming them as being purely for testing purposes without assigning any security properties to them.

Status of This Memo

This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.

This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9500.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The widespread use of public key cryptosystems on the Internet has led to a proliferation of publicly known but not necessarily acknowledged keys that are used for testing purposes or that ship preconfigured in applications. These keys provide no security, but since there's no record of them, relying parties are often unaware that they provide no security. In order to address this issue, this document provides a set of standard public test keys that may be used wherever a preconfigured or sample key is required and, by extension, also in situations where such keys may be used, such as when testing digitally signed data. Their purpose corresponds roughly to that of the European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research (EICAR) test file, a non-virus used as a test file for antivirus products, and the Generic Test for Unsolicited Bulk Email (GTUBE) file, a similar file used with spam-detection products.

The keys provided cover three major algorithm families:

Although some of the algorithms and key sizes are no longer recommended, keys corresponding to those algorithms and key sizes are provided in order to accommodate the large installed base of existing implementations that use them.

This document does not try to cover every possible algorithm family and type since there are far too many of these and new ones are constantly appearing and, in some cases, disappearing. If similar documents are created for further algorithm families, they should update this document, and for ease of implementation and use, they should maintain compatibility with the format and naming conventions used here.

2. Publicly Known Test Keys

This section provides the test keys for the algorithm groups in various sizes in a C-like notation that may be directly used in crypto code written in C-like languages such as C, C++, Java, JavaScript, Go, Swift, and Rust, covering the majority of languages likely to be used to implement crypto code.

Alongside the source code format, they are also provided in encoded form, specifically the OpenSSL private key format, which many applications can process directly.

Each element of the key is given in a form consisting of a count in bits (the value from which the nominal key size is taken) followed by a byte string containing that key element in big-endian form. For example, the following is a sample key component for the RSA p value, where 0xCF is the most significant byte of the RSA p value and 0x03 is the least significant byte of the value:

    /* p */
    { 0xCF, 0xDA, 0xF9, 0x99, 0x6F, 0x05, 0x95, 0x84,
      0x09, 0x90, 0xB3, 0xAB, 0x39, 0xB7, 0xDD, 0x1D,
      0xE1, 0x2C, 0x0D, 0xF7, 0x30, 0xE2, 0xB8, 0x09,
      0x73, 0x50, 0x28, 0xF6, 0x55, 0x85, 0x57, 0x03 },

In addition to the key data, each key is given a recommended name for use in source code as a means of providing a standard reference for each one.

2.1. RSA Keys

The following publicly known test keys may be used for RSA.

RSA-1024 key "testRSA1024":

        /* n */
        { 0xB0, 0xD1, 0x83, 0x52, 0xA8, 0x8F, 0x53, 0xD5,
          0x51, 0x6F, 0x46, 0xC2, 0x0E, 0x7A, 0x36, 0x7D,
          0x7D, 0xE8, 0x8A, 0xCF, 0x54, 0xA0, 0x19, 0xF6,
          0xDE, 0xF5, 0x7A, 0xB9, 0xB4, 0x4C, 0xED, 0xDB,
          0x22, 0x42, 0xB1, 0xBC, 0xA0, 0xFB, 0x1B, 0x5C,
          0xB8, 0x2B, 0x30, 0x36, 0x17, 0x6A, 0x63, 0x90,
          0x35, 0x64, 0xDE, 0xC6, 0xEB, 0x41, 0xDB, 0x2F,
          0x8F, 0xC7, 0x87, 0xF4, 0xE5, 0x2E, 0x11, 0x49,
          0xE3, 0x33, 0x47, 0x57, 0x29, 0x73, 0xF6, 0x60,
          0xC3, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xA9, 0xE0, 0x82, 0x1C, 0x2B,
          0x69, 0x5B, 0xE7, 0xAE, 0x9D, 0x7D, 0x30, 0xF4,
          0x07, 0x91, 0x10, 0xF4, 0x8A, 0xAE, 0x6F, 0x8B,
          0x70, 0x2D, 0x47, 0x4B, 0x29, 0x00, 0x81, 0x7F,
          0x28, 0x66, 0x24, 0x9B, 0xEC, 0x12, 0xA2, 0xB1,
          0x9B, 0x82, 0x78, 0x41, 0x68, 0x08, 0xF8, 0x1A,
          0xE1, 0xFC, 0xF9, 0xB7, 0x77, 0x8A, 0x62, 0x3F },
        /* e */
        { 0x01, 0x00, 0x01 },
        /* d */
        { 0x48, 0x2E, 0x9F, 0x8F, 0xA4, 0xE4, 0x2D, 0xF3,
          0x0D, 0x75, 0x81, 0xCB, 0x42, 0xA1, 0xBD, 0x90,
          0xE9, 0x4F, 0x7F, 0x2B, 0x38, 0x7E, 0xCB, 0x5A,
          0xAE, 0x96, 0x43, 0xED, 0x7F, 0x9F, 0x50, 0x12,
          0x7F, 0x1F, 0xFE, 0xF2, 0xE4, 0x3C, 0xDE, 0x64,
          0xB1, 0x82, 0x60, 0x02, 0x14, 0xF9, 0x07, 0x80,
          0x1D, 0x6B, 0xFA, 0x4D, 0xF6, 0x48, 0x42, 0x34,
          0x5E, 0x5B, 0xB4, 0x32, 0xD3, 0x44, 0x45, 0x25,
          0xD8, 0x30, 0x16, 0x54, 0xC5, 0x44, 0x2B, 0x0A,
          0x5E, 0x11, 0xB9, 0xC7, 0xE2, 0x01, 0xFA, 0x32,
          0xF4, 0x1A, 0xBA, 0xF4, 0xF0, 0xA6, 0xE0, 0x3C,
          0xF0, 0xE0, 0xCB, 0x82, 0x66, 0xC6, 0x2A, 0xD1,
          0x1D, 0x95, 0x6D, 0x53, 0xC9, 0x46, 0x6E, 0x48,
          0x99, 0x5F, 0xEA, 0x26, 0x0C, 0x85, 0x36, 0xF0,
          0x41, 0xCB, 0x35, 0x62, 0xFA, 0xAC, 0x51, 0x1C,
          0x4D, 0x66, 0xA8, 0xFE, 0xD1, 0x11, 0xB2, 0x91 },
        /* p */
        { 0xE9, 0xD8, 0x6E, 0x4D, 0xC3, 0x4A, 0x98, 0x5A,
          0x7E, 0xC7, 0x5A, 0x6F, 0x54, 0xA7, 0x5C, 0xE4,
          0x51, 0x39, 0xE4, 0x52, 0x40, 0xB3, 0x86, 0xAB,
          0x71, 0x1D, 0xB7, 0x91, 0xBC, 0xD9, 0x87, 0x18,
          0xA1, 0x3B, 0xAF, 0x21, 0x8C, 0x24, 0x49, 0x36,
          0x46, 0x68, 0x07, 0x56, 0xCB, 0x50, 0xA6, 0xCB,
          0xEE, 0x15, 0x8E, 0x25, 0x21, 0x44, 0x99, 0x12,
          0x30, 0x1C, 0x0D, 0x41, 0x49, 0x11, 0x18, 0x45 },
        /* q */
        { 0xC1, 0x91, 0xFA, 0x3B, 0x55, 0x0B, 0x39, 0x1A,
          0x7C, 0xB0, 0x72, 0x83, 0x76, 0x27, 0x72, 0x95,
          0xE6, 0x1C, 0x65, 0x4F, 0x0B, 0xEF, 0x2F, 0x58,
          0xDC, 0xE5, 0xC9, 0x62, 0xA1, 0x0B, 0x7D, 0xD7,
          0x5F, 0x06, 0x01, 0x54, 0x65, 0xE5, 0x50, 0x76,
          0xE4, 0x66, 0x26, 0x3E, 0xEB, 0xCA, 0xED, 0x20,
          0xD2, 0xEB, 0xAB, 0x39, 0x31, 0x3E, 0x8B, 0xC5,
          0x67, 0x32, 0x0F, 0xE8, 0xB2, 0xDC, 0x62, 0xB3 },
        /* u */
        { 0xB9, 0x9D, 0x7F, 0x8F, 0x4D, 0x4D, 0x45, 0x5F,
          0x1F, 0xBA, 0x46, 0x2D, 0x99, 0x0A, 0x2E, 0x84,
          0x8C, 0x42, 0x8C, 0x1E, 0xBE, 0xE0, 0x1D, 0xC0,
          0x01, 0x84, 0xC8, 0xA7, 0x65, 0x83, 0xAD, 0x37,
          0x9F, 0x69, 0xAD, 0xAF, 0x54, 0x75, 0x54, 0x30,
          0xF6, 0x3C, 0x42, 0x53, 0xD1, 0xBB, 0x78, 0xCC,
          0x9B, 0xD2, 0x32, 0x64, 0x34, 0x00, 0x80, 0xB8,
          0x4C, 0x1A, 0x91, 0x7D, 0xE0, 0x8B, 0x6E, 0xDB },
        /* exponent1 */
        { 0xE7, 0x3A, 0xE0, 0x37, 0x7C, 0xB8, 0xB2, 0x56,
          0x29, 0xAE, 0xAE, 0xBA, 0x0F, 0x97, 0x3E, 0xBF,
          0x75, 0xA2, 0x2D, 0x27, 0x38, 0x5B, 0x4C, 0xFB,
          0x11, 0xEB, 0x34, 0xAD, 0xA3, 0x73, 0xE5, 0xA6,
          0x71, 0x28, 0x37, 0x50, 0x90, 0xE7, 0x00, 0x8D,
          0xEE, 0xA8, 0xC7, 0x39, 0x07, 0xEA, 0x44, 0x44,
          0xBA, 0xB4, 0x0D, 0xCE, 0xA1, 0x4A, 0xD7, 0xA1,
          0xA8, 0x78, 0xD4, 0x92, 0x8D, 0xD1, 0x9D, 0x91 },
        /* exponent2 */
        { 0x41, 0x99, 0x79, 0x16, 0x16, 0x72, 0x21, 0x3E,
          0x0A, 0xB7, 0xB9, 0x77, 0x37, 0xD9, 0x92, 0x89,
          0x9E, 0x5C, 0x4D, 0x31, 0x06, 0xB8, 0x5E, 0x71,
          0x5D, 0x1B, 0x3A, 0xAE, 0x84, 0x29, 0x62, 0xD2,
          0x54, 0x4F, 0xB2, 0xAF, 0xA9, 0x80, 0x97, 0x4E,
          0x53, 0x85, 0x12, 0xBD, 0x0C, 0x27, 0xCF, 0x48,
          0xEA, 0x72, 0x17, 0xAA, 0xE0, 0x37, 0x74, 0x22,
          0xC8, 0x20, 0x3D, 0x27, 0xFD, 0x45, 0x96, 0xE5 }

RSA-1024 key in encoded form:


RSA-2048 key "testRSA2048":

        /* n */
        { 0xB0, 0xF9, 0xE8, 0x19, 0x43, 0xA7, 0xAE, 0x98,
          0x92, 0xAA, 0xDE, 0x17, 0xCA, 0x7C, 0x40, 0xF8,
          0x74, 0x4F, 0xED, 0x2F, 0x81, 0x48, 0xE6, 0xC8,
          0xEA, 0xA2, 0x7B, 0x7D, 0x00, 0x15, 0x48, 0xFB,
          0x51, 0x92, 0xAB, 0x28, 0xB5, 0x6C, 0x50, 0x60,
          0xB1, 0x18, 0xCC, 0xD1, 0x31, 0xE5, 0x94, 0x87,
          0x4C, 0x6C, 0xA9, 0x89, 0xB5, 0x6C, 0x27, 0x29,
          0x6F, 0x09, 0xFB, 0x93, 0xA0, 0x34, 0xDF, 0x32,
          0xE9, 0x7C, 0x6F, 0xF0, 0x99, 0x8C, 0xFD, 0x8E,
          0x6F, 0x42, 0xDD, 0xA5, 0x8A, 0xCD, 0x1F, 0xA9,
          0x79, 0x86, 0xF1, 0x44, 0xF3, 0xD1, 0x54, 0xD6,
          0x76, 0x50, 0x17, 0x5E, 0x68, 0x54, 0xB3, 0xA9,
          0x52, 0x00, 0x3B, 0xC0, 0x68, 0x87, 0xB8, 0x45,
          0x5A, 0xC2, 0xB1, 0x9F, 0x7B, 0x2F, 0x76, 0x50,
          0x4E, 0xBC, 0x98, 0xEC, 0x94, 0x55, 0x71, 0xB0,
          0x78, 0x92, 0x15, 0x0D, 0xDC, 0x6A, 0x74, 0xCA,
          0x0F, 0xBC, 0xD3, 0x54, 0x97, 0xCE, 0x81, 0x53,
          0x4D, 0xAF, 0x94, 0x18, 0x84, 0x4B, 0x13, 0xAE,
          0xA3, 0x1F, 0x9D, 0x5A, 0x6B, 0x95, 0x57, 0xBB,
          0xDF, 0x61, 0x9E, 0xFD, 0x4E, 0x88, 0x7F, 0x2D,
          0x42, 0xB8, 0xDD, 0x8B, 0xC9, 0x87, 0xEA, 0xE1,
          0xBF, 0x89, 0xCA, 0xB8, 0x5E, 0xE2, 0x1E, 0x35,
          0x63, 0x05, 0xDF, 0x6C, 0x07, 0xA8, 0x83, 0x8E,
          0x3E, 0xF4, 0x1C, 0x59, 0x5D, 0xCC, 0xE4, 0x3D,
          0xAF, 0xC4, 0x91, 0x23, 0xEF, 0x4D, 0x8A, 0xBB,
          0xA9, 0x3D, 0x39, 0x05, 0xE4, 0x02, 0x8D, 0x7B,
          0xA9, 0x14, 0x84, 0xA2, 0x75, 0x96, 0xE0, 0x7B,
          0x4B, 0x6E, 0xD9, 0x92, 0xF0, 0x77, 0xB5, 0x24,
          0xD3, 0xDC, 0xFE, 0x7D, 0xDD, 0x55, 0x49, 0xBE,
          0x7C, 0xCE, 0x8D, 0xA0, 0x35, 0xCF, 0xA0, 0xB3,
          0xFB, 0x8F, 0x9E, 0x46, 0xF7, 0x32, 0xB2, 0xA8,
          0x6B, 0x46, 0x01, 0x65, 0xC0, 0x8F, 0x53, 0x13 },
        /* e */
        { 0x01, 0x00, 0x01 },
        /* d */
        { 0x41, 0x18, 0x8B, 0x20, 0xCF, 0xDB, 0xDB, 0xC2,
          0xCF, 0x1F, 0xFE, 0x75, 0x2D, 0xCB, 0xAA, 0x72,
          0x39, 0x06, 0x35, 0x2E, 0x26, 0x15, 0xD4, 0x9D,
          0xCE, 0x80, 0x59, 0x7F, 0xCF, 0x0A, 0x05, 0x40,
          0x3B, 0xEF, 0x00, 0xFA, 0x06, 0x51, 0x82, 0xF7,
          0x2D, 0xEC, 0xFB, 0x59, 0x6F, 0x4B, 0x0C, 0xE8,
          0xFF, 0x59, 0x70, 0xBA, 0xF0, 0x7A, 0x89, 0xA5,
          0x19, 0xEC, 0xC8, 0x16, 0xB2, 0xF4, 0xFF, 0xAC,
          0x50, 0x69, 0xAF, 0x1B, 0x06, 0xBF, 0xEF, 0x7B,
          0xF6, 0xBC, 0xD7, 0x9E, 0x4E, 0x81, 0xC8, 0xC5,
          0xA3, 0xA7, 0xD9, 0x13, 0x0D, 0xC3, 0xCF, 0xBA,
          0xDA, 0xE5, 0xF6, 0xD2, 0x88, 0xF9, 0xAE, 0xE3,
          0xF6, 0xFF, 0x92, 0xFA, 0xE0, 0xF8, 0x1A, 0xF5,
          0x97, 0xBE, 0xC9, 0x6A, 0xE9, 0xFA, 0xB9, 0x40,
          0x2C, 0xD5, 0xFE, 0x41, 0xF7, 0x05, 0xBE, 0xBD,
          0xB4, 0x7B, 0xB7, 0x36, 0xD3, 0xFE, 0x6C, 0x5A,
          0x51, 0xE0, 0xE2, 0x07, 0x32, 0xA9, 0x7B, 0x5E,
          0x46, 0xC1, 0xCB, 0xDB, 0x26, 0xD7, 0x48, 0x54,
          0xC6, 0xB6, 0x60, 0x4A, 0xED, 0x46, 0x37, 0x35,
          0xFF, 0x90, 0x76, 0x04, 0x65, 0x57, 0xCA, 0xF9,
          0x49, 0xBF, 0x44, 0x88, 0x95, 0xC2, 0x04, 0x32,
          0xC1, 0xE0, 0x9C, 0x01, 0x4E, 0xA7, 0x56, 0x60,
          0x43, 0x4F, 0x1A, 0x0F, 0x3B, 0xE2, 0x94, 0xBA,
          0xBC, 0x5D, 0x53, 0x0E, 0x6A, 0x10, 0x21, 0x3F,
          0x53, 0xB6, 0x03, 0x75, 0xFC, 0x84, 0xA7, 0x57,
          0x3F, 0x2A, 0xF1, 0x21, 0x55, 0x84, 0xF5, 0xB4,
          0xBD, 0xA6, 0xD4, 0xE8, 0xF9, 0xE1, 0x7A, 0x78,
          0xD9, 0x7E, 0x77, 0xB8, 0x6D, 0xA4, 0xA1, 0x84,
          0x64, 0x75, 0x31, 0x8A, 0x7A, 0x10, 0xA5, 0x61,
          0x01, 0x4E, 0xFF, 0xA2, 0x3A, 0x81, 0xEC, 0x56,
          0xE9, 0xE4, 0x10, 0x9D, 0xEF, 0x8C, 0xB3, 0xF7,
          0x97, 0x22, 0x3F, 0x7D, 0x8D, 0x0D, 0x43, 0x51 },
        /* p */
        { 0xDD, 0x10, 0x57, 0x02, 0x38, 0x2F, 0x23, 0x2B,
          0x36, 0x81, 0xF5, 0x37, 0x91, 0xE2, 0x26, 0x17,
          0xC7, 0xBF, 0x4E, 0x9A, 0xCB, 0x81, 0xED, 0x48,
          0xDA, 0xF6, 0xD6, 0x99, 0x5D, 0xA3, 0xEA, 0xB6,
          0x42, 0x83, 0x9A, 0xFF, 0x01, 0x2D, 0x2E, 0xA6,
          0x28, 0xB9, 0x0A, 0xF2, 0x79, 0xFD, 0x3E, 0x6F,
          0x7C, 0x93, 0xCD, 0x80, 0xF0, 0x72, 0xF0, 0x1F,
          0xF2, 0x44, 0x3B, 0x3E, 0xE8, 0xF2, 0x4E, 0xD4,
          0x69, 0xA7, 0x96, 0x13, 0xA4, 0x1B, 0xD2, 0x40,
          0x20, 0xF9, 0x2F, 0xD1, 0x10, 0x59, 0xBD, 0x1D,
          0x0F, 0x30, 0x1B, 0x5B, 0xA7, 0xA9, 0xD3, 0x63,
          0x7C, 0xA8, 0xD6, 0x5C, 0x1A, 0x98, 0x15, 0x41,
          0x7D, 0x8E, 0xAB, 0x73, 0x4B, 0x0B, 0x4F, 0x3A,
          0x2C, 0x66, 0x1D, 0x9A, 0x1A, 0x82, 0xF3, 0xAC,
          0x73, 0x4C, 0x40, 0x53, 0x06, 0x69, 0xAB, 0x8E,
          0x47, 0x30, 0x45, 0xA5, 0x8E, 0x65, 0x53, 0x9D },
        /* q */
        { 0xCC, 0xF1, 0xE5, 0xBB, 0x90, 0xC8, 0xE9, 0x78,
          0x1E, 0xA7, 0x5B, 0xEB, 0xF1, 0x0B, 0xC2, 0x52,
          0xE1, 0x1E, 0xB0, 0x23, 0xA0, 0x26, 0x0F, 0x18,
          0x87, 0x55, 0x2A, 0x56, 0x86, 0x3F, 0x4A, 0x64,
          0x21, 0xE8, 0xC6, 0x00, 0xBF, 0x52, 0x3D, 0x6C,
          0xB1, 0xB0, 0xAD, 0xBD, 0xD6, 0x5B, 0xFE, 0xE4,
          0xA8, 0x8A, 0x03, 0x7E, 0x3D, 0x1A, 0x41, 0x5E,
          0x5B, 0xB9, 0x56, 0x48, 0xDA, 0x5A, 0x0C, 0xA2,
          0x6B, 0x54, 0xF4, 0xA6, 0x39, 0x48, 0x52, 0x2C,
          0x3D, 0x5F, 0x89, 0xB9, 0x4A, 0x72, 0xEF, 0xFF,
          0x95, 0x13, 0x4D, 0x59, 0x40, 0xCE, 0x45, 0x75,
          0x8F, 0x30, 0x89, 0x80, 0x90, 0x89, 0x56, 0x58,
          0x8E, 0xEF, 0x57, 0x5B, 0x3E, 0x4B, 0xC4, 0xC3,
          0x68, 0xCF, 0xE8, 0x13, 0xEE, 0x9C, 0x25, 0x2C,
          0x2B, 0x02, 0xE0, 0xDF, 0x91, 0xF1, 0xAA, 0x01,
          0x93, 0x8D, 0x38, 0x68, 0x5D, 0x60, 0xBA, 0x6F },
        /* u */
        { 0x0A, 0x81, 0xD8, 0xA6, 0x18, 0x31, 0x4A, 0x80,
          0x3A, 0xF6, 0x1C, 0x06, 0x71, 0x1F, 0x2C, 0x39,
          0xB2, 0x66, 0xFF, 0x41, 0x4D, 0x53, 0x47, 0x6D,
          0x1D, 0xA5, 0x2A, 0x43, 0x18, 0xAA, 0xFE, 0x4B,
          0x96, 0xF0, 0xDA, 0x07, 0x15, 0x5F, 0x8A, 0x51,
          0x34, 0xDA, 0xB8, 0x8E, 0xE2, 0x9E, 0x81, 0x68,
          0x07, 0x6F, 0xCD, 0x78, 0xCA, 0x79, 0x1A, 0xC6,
          0x34, 0x42, 0xA8, 0x1C, 0xD0, 0x69, 0x39, 0x27,
          0xD8, 0x08, 0xE3, 0x35, 0xE8, 0xD8, 0xCB, 0xF2,
          0x12, 0x19, 0x07, 0x50, 0x9A, 0x57, 0x75, 0x9B,
          0x4F, 0x9A, 0x18, 0xFA, 0x3A, 0x7B, 0x33, 0x37,
          0x79, 0xED, 0xDE, 0x7A, 0x45, 0x93, 0x84, 0xF8,
          0x44, 0x4A, 0xDA, 0xEC, 0xFF, 0xEC, 0x95, 0xFD,
          0x55, 0x2B, 0x0C, 0xFC, 0xB6, 0xC7, 0xF6, 0x92,
          0x62, 0x6D, 0xDE, 0x1E, 0xF2, 0x68, 0xA4, 0x0D,
          0x2F, 0x67, 0xB5, 0xC8, 0xAA, 0x38, 0x7F, 0xF7 },
        /* exponent1 */
        { 0x09, 0xED, 0x54, 0xEA, 0xED, 0x98, 0xF8, 0x4C,
          0x55, 0x7B, 0x4A, 0x86, 0xBF, 0x4F, 0x57, 0x84,
          0x93, 0xDC, 0xBC, 0x6B, 0xE9, 0x1D, 0xA1, 0x89,
          0x37, 0x04, 0x04, 0xA9, 0x08, 0x72, 0x76, 0xF4,
          0xCE, 0x51, 0xD8, 0xA1, 0x00, 0xED, 0x85, 0x7D,
          0xC2, 0xB0, 0x64, 0x94, 0x74, 0xF3, 0xF1, 0x5C,
          0xD2, 0x4C, 0x54, 0xDB, 0x28, 0x71, 0x10, 0xE5,
          0x6E, 0x5C, 0xB0, 0x08, 0x68, 0x2F, 0x91, 0x68,
          0xAA, 0x81, 0xF3, 0x14, 0x58, 0xB7, 0x43, 0x1E,
          0xCC, 0x1C, 0x44, 0x90, 0x6F, 0xDA, 0x87, 0xCA,
          0x89, 0x47, 0x10, 0xC3, 0x71, 0xE9, 0x07, 0x6C,
          0x1D, 0x49, 0xFB, 0xAE, 0x51, 0x27, 0x69, 0x34,
          0xF2, 0xAD, 0x78, 0x77, 0x89, 0xF4, 0x2D, 0x0F,
          0xA0, 0xB4, 0xC9, 0x39, 0x85, 0x5D, 0x42, 0x12,
          0x09, 0x6F, 0x70, 0x28, 0x0A, 0x4E, 0xAE, 0x7C,
          0x8A, 0x27, 0xD9, 0xC8, 0xD0, 0x77, 0x2E, 0x65 },
        /* exponent2 */
        { 0x8C, 0xB6, 0x85, 0x7A, 0x7B, 0xD5, 0x46, 0x5F,
          0x80, 0x04, 0x7E, 0x9B, 0x87, 0xBC, 0x00, 0x27,
          0x31, 0x84, 0x05, 0x81, 0xE0, 0x62, 0x61, 0x39,
          0x01, 0x2A, 0x5B, 0x50, 0x5F, 0x0A, 0x33, 0x84,
          0x7E, 0xB7, 0xB8, 0xC3, 0x28, 0x99, 0x49, 0xAD,
          0x48, 0x6F, 0x3B, 0x4B, 0x3D, 0x53, 0x9A, 0xB5,
          0xDA, 0x76, 0x30, 0x21, 0xCB, 0xC8, 0x2C, 0x1B,
          0xA2, 0x34, 0xA5, 0x66, 0x8D, 0xED, 0x08, 0x01,
          0xB8, 0x59, 0xF3, 0x43, 0xF1, 0xCE, 0x93, 0x04,
          0xE6, 0xFA, 0xA2, 0xB0, 0x02, 0xCA, 0xD9, 0xB7,
          0x8C, 0xDE, 0x5C, 0xDC, 0x2C, 0x1F, 0xB4, 0x17,
          0x1C, 0x42, 0x42, 0x16, 0x70, 0xA6, 0xAB, 0x0F,
          0x50, 0xCC, 0x4A, 0x19, 0x4E, 0xB3, 0x6D, 0x1C,
          0x91, 0xE9, 0x35, 0xBA, 0x01, 0xB9, 0x59, 0xD8,
          0x72, 0x8B, 0x9E, 0x64, 0x42, 0x6B, 0x3F, 0xC3,
          0xA7, 0x50, 0x6D, 0xEB, 0x52, 0x39, 0xA8, 0xA7 }

RSA-2048 key in encoded form:


RSA-4096 key "testRSA4096":

        /* n */
        { 0xB3, 0x8B, 0x49, 0x60, 0xE6, 0x3B, 0xE6, 0xA8,
          0xDB, 0xA8, 0x9A, 0x82, 0x97, 0x8E, 0xF1, 0xF6,
          0x32, 0x44, 0xE5, 0x57, 0x7D, 0x8C, 0xF5, 0x86,
          0x16, 0xD5, 0xCA, 0x57, 0x59, 0xD4, 0x9C, 0xC8,
          0xD9, 0x36, 0xC3, 0x38, 0xAA, 0x3C, 0xB9, 0xB1,
          0x11, 0xC1, 0x49, 0x7E, 0x5B, 0x51, 0xAF, 0x69,
          0x2F, 0x26, 0x11, 0xE6, 0x89, 0xF7, 0x67, 0x54,
          0x80, 0xC0, 0xB0, 0xF4, 0xC3, 0x65, 0x4F, 0x43,
          0xAF, 0x85, 0xFE, 0x8C, 0x8A, 0xD7, 0x34, 0xE0,
          0x42, 0xA8, 0xAD, 0xA0, 0x5F, 0xD7, 0x65, 0x08,
          0xE0, 0x0B, 0xA0, 0xF7, 0x56, 0xC3, 0x44, 0x3B,
          0xBE, 0x83, 0x3E, 0xA7, 0xD1, 0x00, 0xD4, 0xFB,
          0x36, 0x7E, 0xEB, 0xD6, 0x0B, 0xDB, 0x64, 0x86,
          0x77, 0xFC, 0x7D, 0xEB, 0x94, 0x24, 0x4D, 0xAD,
          0x1A, 0xF8, 0xEE, 0xD1, 0xC6, 0x58, 0x12, 0xC0,
          0x3E, 0x7C, 0x73, 0xF7, 0xF3, 0x58, 0xE9, 0x41,
          0xBC, 0x66, 0x45, 0x8F, 0xF7, 0xBB, 0x97, 0xA4,
          0x9A, 0x98, 0xA1, 0x18, 0x07, 0xE0, 0x2C, 0x1A,
          0x3B, 0x9A, 0xD3, 0x3A, 0x57, 0x3A, 0xE1, 0x80,
          0xE1, 0xFF, 0x43, 0x2A, 0xE5, 0x58, 0x0C, 0xC9,
          0xCA, 0xBF, 0xAB, 0x60, 0x2F, 0x32, 0x5B, 0xCD,
          0xA0, 0x97, 0xE8, 0x7B, 0xC7, 0xA6, 0xD7, 0x4E,
          0x34, 0xA8, 0x7D, 0x60, 0x8A, 0x43, 0xFE, 0xB2,
          0xE4, 0xFF, 0xF1, 0xF4, 0xB8, 0xE7, 0x68, 0x6A,
          0x98, 0x47, 0x5D, 0xB5, 0x1A, 0x6E, 0xBD, 0x08,
          0x17, 0x2A, 0x57, 0x41, 0x77, 0x49, 0x24, 0x8B,
          0x21, 0x55, 0xC8, 0xB9, 0x06, 0xE0, 0xD5, 0x40,
          0xE8, 0xCB, 0x28, 0xF4, 0xC0, 0x0A, 0xDC, 0x9F,
          0xE4, 0x75, 0x8A, 0x1A, 0xC3, 0x64, 0xAB, 0x39,
          0xE4, 0xE1, 0x55, 0x28, 0x98, 0x54, 0x44, 0x15,
          0x3F, 0xEE, 0xC6, 0xAD, 0x4C, 0x53, 0x48, 0xB2,
          0xE3, 0x8F, 0xF5, 0x50, 0xF5, 0xFA, 0x58, 0x33,
          0x97, 0x93, 0x37, 0x30, 0xC8, 0x08, 0x81, 0xBF,
          0x11, 0xEE, 0xE8, 0xFE, 0x38, 0x6D, 0x5B, 0x51,
          0x28, 0x49, 0xA9, 0x83, 0x99, 0x43, 0xAB, 0xF3,
          0xD9, 0x72, 0x20, 0x76, 0x97, 0xB8, 0xEC, 0x24,
          0x11, 0xA2, 0x61, 0x9D, 0x55, 0xCA, 0x04, 0x23,
          0x3C, 0x5A, 0x2C, 0xED, 0xC6, 0xF2, 0x86, 0xD8,
          0x29, 0xD0, 0xE8, 0x37, 0x20, 0x7B, 0x76, 0x52,
          0x9A, 0xA2, 0x44, 0x87, 0x21, 0x26, 0x8D, 0xC0,
          0x15, 0x0B, 0xB7, 0xB0, 0x7E, 0x73, 0x31, 0x3A,
          0x71, 0x3E, 0x58, 0x95, 0xBA, 0xAF, 0x3A, 0xDF,
          0xFA, 0x60, 0x39, 0x58, 0xC5, 0x67, 0xF8, 0x5C,
          0xF2, 0x5B, 0x1D, 0x80, 0xA2, 0x77, 0x56, 0xA3,
          0x0D, 0x1A, 0x50, 0xA1, 0xE4, 0x69, 0x8E, 0xDA,
          0x9A, 0x12, 0x2B, 0xB0, 0xAA, 0x7A, 0x60, 0xF7,
          0xCD, 0x22, 0x6C, 0xB1, 0x16, 0x5C, 0xFC, 0xF9,
          0xCA, 0x83, 0x0A, 0x60, 0x6C, 0xC0, 0xFB, 0x14,
          0x87, 0xF2, 0x49, 0xE5, 0xE0, 0xC7, 0x1C, 0x88,
          0x62, 0x6C, 0x57, 0x12, 0x80, 0x81, 0xDE, 0x76,
          0xC1, 0x23, 0x84, 0xB6, 0xD4, 0x48, 0xB6, 0x7F,
          0x0E, 0x71, 0x23, 0xAE, 0xEF, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x85,
          0x96, 0x03, 0x74, 0x75, 0x54, 0x83, 0xF2, 0x90,
          0xA7, 0xDE, 0x66, 0x46, 0x5E, 0x22, 0x7B, 0x2B,
          0x17, 0x31, 0x8F, 0x8A, 0x49, 0x05, 0x2B, 0x01,
          0x45, 0xFB, 0xA2, 0x83, 0x77, 0x2B, 0xC2, 0x9A,
          0x5B, 0x58, 0x12, 0xAC, 0xCE, 0xE3, 0xAB, 0x62,
          0x81, 0x70, 0x19, 0xE5, 0x48, 0x07, 0xF2, 0x88,
          0x97, 0x12, 0xB7, 0xB8, 0xF3, 0x03, 0xBA, 0x5F,
          0xE1, 0x47, 0xF9, 0xC2, 0xF3, 0x43, 0x4A, 0xB7,
          0x03, 0xC1, 0xD9, 0x46, 0x73, 0x43, 0x82, 0xA0,
          0xA3, 0x53, 0xF4, 0xE0, 0xCB, 0xBE, 0xA2, 0x6A,
          0x4B, 0xBF, 0x21, 0xCE, 0x9E, 0xB5, 0xE7, 0x9D,
          0x47, 0x57, 0xD7, 0xDE, 0x02, 0x7F, 0x20, 0xE5 },
        /* e */
        { 0x01, 0x00, 0x01 },
        /* d */
        { 0x6A, 0xD1, 0xB0, 0xBB, 0x7C, 0xDF, 0x20, 0x91,
          0x4F, 0xF6, 0x94, 0xCE, 0xA3, 0x7B, 0x01, 0x4B,
          0xD7, 0x86, 0x93, 0xE8, 0x24, 0xA3, 0x4B, 0xA4,
          0x16, 0x4B, 0xE5, 0xD1, 0x68, 0x79, 0x8D, 0x3A,
          0x15, 0xB9, 0x76, 0x16, 0x6D, 0x7A, 0x29, 0x84,
          0x46, 0xAA, 0xF7, 0x9D, 0xBC, 0x98, 0xF1, 0xC2,
          0xA3, 0xB1, 0x83, 0xAE, 0xE4, 0x60, 0x94, 0x52,
          0x7B, 0x33, 0xA9, 0x54, 0x46, 0x38, 0x2D, 0x1B,
          0x78, 0xFF, 0x40, 0x7D, 0xBF, 0x50, 0xE0, 0x7D,
          0x98, 0x4B, 0x20, 0xD9, 0xAC, 0x8B, 0xCA, 0xE9,
          0xA7, 0xDA, 0x63, 0x4F, 0x24, 0x88, 0x92, 0x3C,
          0xF5, 0x50, 0xC2, 0x63, 0x37, 0x7E, 0xC6, 0x38,
          0x1B, 0xA9, 0x11, 0x88, 0xCC, 0x8F, 0x1F, 0xD4,
          0xBC, 0xE8, 0x34, 0xC6, 0x86, 0xE1, 0xBE, 0x71,
          0x01, 0xFE, 0x1E, 0xA0, 0x21, 0xE0, 0x5E, 0x6F,
          0x8F, 0xFD, 0x9D, 0x45, 0x64, 0xBB, 0x7E, 0x33,
          0x84, 0xF2, 0x57, 0xEA, 0x9A, 0x9A, 0x3A, 0x53,
          0x4D, 0x43, 0x07, 0x7C, 0xF3, 0x9A, 0x94, 0xC2,
          0x9A, 0xB9, 0xB7, 0x78, 0x1B, 0x53, 0xC5, 0xBC,
          0x57, 0x38, 0xF6, 0x6E, 0x3B, 0xFA, 0xD1, 0xC8,
          0xF0, 0xDE, 0x6E, 0x08, 0x90, 0xAB, 0xE6, 0x60,
          0x85, 0x6E, 0x3B, 0x7C, 0x01, 0x41, 0xAB, 0x11,
          0x35, 0x55, 0x15, 0x1A, 0xED, 0xC8, 0x1C, 0x6D,
          0xB4, 0xBE, 0xED, 0xE6, 0x0A, 0x68, 0x6B, 0x00,
          0x18, 0x4F, 0x45, 0x5A, 0x2D, 0x3A, 0xBB, 0x2E,
          0x68, 0x11, 0xE1, 0xCD, 0xEA, 0x39, 0x53, 0x0B,
          0x8F, 0xAE, 0xA8, 0xF8, 0x24, 0x36, 0x79, 0xC9,
          0xDF, 0x76, 0x97, 0x8C, 0x5E, 0x01, 0x58, 0x57,
          0xAC, 0xA5, 0x9D, 0x9F, 0xE4, 0xA6, 0x2D, 0x15,
          0x09, 0xAE, 0x62, 0x6A, 0xFF, 0x8E, 0x0A, 0xDF,
          0x95, 0xA4, 0xEB, 0x01, 0x49, 0xCA, 0xB7, 0x12,
          0xEF, 0x3E, 0xC3, 0xD6, 0x02, 0x32, 0x8A, 0x6C,
          0x50, 0x21, 0xBA, 0x1B, 0x35, 0xB8, 0x58, 0x3D,
          0x9A, 0x90, 0x40, 0x55, 0x03, 0xF5, 0xFA, 0x0F,
          0x42, 0x4C, 0x72, 0x86, 0x23, 0xFC, 0x81, 0xD3,
          0xDD, 0x7B, 0xFF, 0x1B, 0xF7, 0x8C, 0x8E, 0x2E,
          0xBD, 0x03, 0xA5, 0x11, 0x2D, 0xEB, 0x65, 0x89,
          0x98, 0x6E, 0x49, 0xBD, 0x30, 0x07, 0x1A, 0xD8,
          0x41, 0xA3, 0xCC, 0xA8, 0x07, 0x6C, 0xCF, 0xC7,
          0x94, 0x63, 0x30, 0xB1, 0xFD, 0x1C, 0x21, 0x2A,
          0xD3, 0xEB, 0xD3, 0x7D, 0x9A, 0x4D, 0x0A, 0x96,
          0x95, 0xB8, 0x16, 0x8A, 0x08, 0x89, 0x32, 0x7D,
          0x52, 0x6F, 0x16, 0xD1, 0x56, 0x37, 0xFA, 0x9D,
          0xBF, 0x04, 0xB0, 0xB8, 0x3D, 0xD8, 0xB5, 0xC4,
          0x05, 0x2D, 0xC5, 0x38, 0xB6, 0xCA, 0xE9, 0xC9,
          0x2E, 0xC9, 0x70, 0x10, 0x7A, 0x2F, 0x1E, 0xE4,
          0xD4, 0x7A, 0x65, 0xCC, 0xA5, 0xB9, 0x59, 0x6E,
          0x42, 0x74, 0x91, 0x9B, 0xE7, 0xD1, 0xEC, 0x90,
          0xE4, 0x50, 0xFE, 0x58, 0x58, 0xDC, 0x2E, 0x01,
          0xE8, 0x4E, 0xBD, 0x92, 0x07, 0xD8, 0xEA, 0x20,
          0xFA, 0x37, 0x14, 0x0E, 0x89, 0xD0, 0x10, 0xD6,
          0x50, 0x1F, 0x22, 0x61, 0x97, 0x18, 0x04, 0xDE,
          0x73, 0x68, 0x0F, 0xE6, 0x1C, 0x23, 0x5C, 0x8F,
          0x4E, 0x63, 0x1F, 0xF0, 0x6D, 0xBD, 0xEE, 0x66,
          0x6D, 0xBB, 0x9A, 0xFB, 0xFD, 0xA3, 0xB9, 0x71,
          0xC3, 0x29, 0x0D, 0x7B, 0xDE, 0xF5, 0xC5, 0x78,
          0x5A, 0x07, 0x1B, 0xE9, 0x4A, 0xE1, 0x8A, 0x0B,
          0x2E, 0xD8, 0xAE, 0x67, 0x9A, 0xBA, 0xA6, 0x10,
          0x85, 0x28, 0xA8, 0x5E, 0x31, 0x7F, 0x87, 0xA8,
          0x99, 0xC5, 0x89, 0xF4, 0xA8, 0xAD, 0x42, 0x90,
          0xA6, 0xCA, 0x1E, 0xF9, 0xF1, 0x4D, 0x8D, 0x0A,
          0x7A, 0x66, 0xDC, 0x75, 0x0B, 0x69, 0xB1, 0x9C,
          0xB2, 0x58, 0x28, 0xC3, 0xEA, 0xF0, 0x42, 0x21,
          0x5C, 0x09, 0xAA, 0xD4, 0xA9, 0x54, 0xE8, 0x55 },
        /* p */
        { 0xE0, 0x41, 0xBD, 0xF1, 0xC9, 0xB5, 0x69, 0xAC,
          0xF5, 0xE8, 0x02, 0x2D, 0x21, 0x1B, 0x87, 0x1B,
          0x5F, 0x29, 0x21, 0x41, 0xA5, 0x89, 0xFD, 0x0F,
          0x6D, 0xCB, 0x59, 0x47, 0x6B, 0x1C, 0x1D, 0xA4,
          0x01, 0x8D, 0xD7, 0xA1, 0xE1, 0x08, 0x39, 0x32,
          0x74, 0x5E, 0xF3, 0xC6, 0x6C, 0xF7, 0xFF, 0x31,
          0x3E, 0xED, 0x4C, 0xB1, 0x68, 0x1D, 0xEF, 0x9D,
          0x29, 0xCC, 0x3F, 0xE8, 0x7A, 0xF7, 0xAD, 0x19,
          0xE9, 0xEF, 0x34, 0x56, 0x62, 0xC9, 0xC4, 0xF4,
          0xE6, 0xE7, 0x07, 0xAA, 0x4E, 0x99, 0x49, 0x63,
          0x4C, 0x08, 0x64, 0x71, 0xA5, 0x5B, 0x67, 0x46,
          0xC2, 0xAE, 0xEF, 0x87, 0x71, 0xEF, 0x21, 0xA2,
          0xEE, 0x8A, 0xB4, 0xDE, 0xC4, 0xC2, 0x04, 0x3C,
          0x70, 0xCF, 0xBA, 0x89, 0xE5, 0xEB, 0x2F, 0x62,
          0xEA, 0x07, 0xC7, 0x4B, 0xD4, 0x16, 0x67, 0x69,
          0x12, 0xA9, 0x58, 0x9F, 0xB3, 0xED, 0x70, 0x28,
          0x8F, 0x8A, 0x03, 0xD1, 0x91, 0xC5, 0x8A, 0x88,
          0x96, 0xE8, 0xB2, 0x0F, 0x1E, 0xDE, 0x91, 0x80,
          0xCE, 0xD3, 0x03, 0x59, 0xF7, 0x5F, 0x48, 0xAF,
          0xE9, 0x7C, 0x46, 0xEE, 0x59, 0xC9, 0x27, 0x1E,
          0x71, 0x37, 0x55, 0x4A, 0xD7, 0x05, 0x56, 0x17,
          0x84, 0x8F, 0xD3, 0x04, 0x1C, 0xD6, 0x30, 0x47,
          0xF6, 0x46, 0x2C, 0x0E, 0x66, 0xE1, 0x83, 0x9F,
          0x63, 0xC6, 0x12, 0xD4, 0xA3, 0x57, 0xF5, 0xE5,
          0x76, 0x35, 0x6A, 0xAA, 0xE7, 0xC6, 0x4A, 0xC0,
          0xBF, 0xD9, 0xD6, 0x5E, 0xDF, 0x4B, 0x2F, 0x34,
          0xDA, 0xDB, 0xDF, 0x69, 0x06, 0x20, 0xC8, 0x95,
          0xCA, 0x44, 0xD9, 0x61, 0xDA, 0x05, 0xB1, 0x36,
          0x2B, 0x4A, 0xD5, 0xDA, 0xAC, 0xB9, 0x0F, 0xF5,
          0x86, 0x33, 0x5E, 0xCD, 0x7E, 0x1D, 0x7A, 0x16,
          0x00, 0xCB, 0x1A, 0xB3, 0x72, 0x69, 0x5B, 0x6E,
          0xC7, 0x71, 0x76, 0x21, 0xDB, 0xBE, 0x93, 0x57 },
        /* q */
        { 0xCC, 0xF5, 0x51, 0x29, 0xD3, 0xB9, 0x24, 0xC8,
          0x38, 0xA7, 0x6C, 0xD3, 0x69, 0xD4, 0x6E, 0x9C,
          0xB8, 0x13, 0xFE, 0x3B, 0x39, 0xBA, 0xF1, 0xEB,
          0x10, 0x18, 0x47, 0xD3, 0x1D, 0x09, 0x13, 0x50,
          0x03, 0xAB, 0x2F, 0xC2, 0x39, 0x43, 0x1C, 0xDA,
          0x6E, 0x99, 0x08, 0x88, 0x3D, 0xE8, 0xA0, 0x54,
          0x6E, 0x35, 0x28, 0x37, 0xD4, 0xEB, 0x95, 0xCB,
          0x41, 0xD8, 0xEE, 0xC1, 0x4A, 0x66, 0xCD, 0x38,
          0xC2, 0x24, 0x7E, 0x82, 0xA3, 0x94, 0x39, 0x29,
          0x27, 0xBB, 0xF5, 0x70, 0xA8, 0x65, 0x5E, 0x0F,
          0x2A, 0xC2, 0x43, 0xE5, 0xFB, 0x87, 0x6F, 0xD2,
          0x0B, 0x48, 0x76, 0x73, 0xA2, 0x77, 0x2D, 0xA9,
          0x70, 0xC1, 0xDF, 0x47, 0xA3, 0x2D, 0xEA, 0x8A,
          0x75, 0xE7, 0x09, 0x54, 0x73, 0x22, 0x9C, 0x69,
          0x3C, 0x88, 0x6A, 0x31, 0x6D, 0x2C, 0xEC, 0xBF,
          0x03, 0x59, 0x7B, 0x04, 0xCA, 0x9E, 0xCA, 0xBD,
          0xA3, 0x36, 0x6E, 0x07, 0x64, 0x88, 0x05, 0x9B,
          0x24, 0x59, 0x6F, 0x5D, 0xF6, 0xE8, 0x56, 0x97,
          0xDB, 0xE6, 0x2A, 0xB2, 0xF8, 0xCC, 0x71, 0xAC,
          0x7F, 0x74, 0x3B, 0x64, 0x12, 0x6D, 0x01, 0xF2,
          0xB3, 0x61, 0x27, 0x16, 0xEC, 0xA7, 0x69, 0x75,
          0xE5, 0x14, 0xED, 0x4D, 0x78, 0xA3, 0x22, 0x90,
          0xBE, 0x0A, 0x82, 0xF1, 0x44, 0x14, 0x99, 0x2B,
          0xD1, 0x80, 0x3D, 0xAD, 0xC9, 0x83, 0xDD, 0xF2,
          0x76, 0xD2, 0xCA, 0xE1, 0xA0, 0xA9, 0x03, 0xF9,
          0x1E, 0x78, 0xBE, 0x3C, 0x0B, 0xCA, 0xF5, 0x8F,
          0x3C, 0xE9, 0x8D, 0x12, 0x3A, 0xA6, 0xC8, 0x5F,
          0x65, 0x51, 0xC5, 0x70, 0x07, 0xFE, 0x47, 0x7A,
          0xC8, 0x7E, 0x03, 0x8B, 0x9A, 0x94, 0xAC, 0xC6,
          0x20, 0xDE, 0x12, 0x25, 0x81, 0x05, 0x34, 0x4A,
          0x0C, 0xFB, 0x37, 0x65, 0x50, 0x5E, 0x8E, 0x7E,
          0xC8, 0x6A, 0xC0, 0x86, 0xF6, 0x55, 0x64, 0x23 },
        /* u */
        { 0xD1, 0x0C, 0x91, 0x8D, 0xA9, 0xF2, 0x6D, 0xA9,
          0x4D, 0xFF, 0x3B, 0x09, 0x24, 0x3C, 0x8C, 0xC3,
          0xD4, 0x39, 0x02, 0x6D, 0xE6, 0x2B, 0x9E, 0x9F,
          0x37, 0xAC, 0x60, 0xBB, 0xD7, 0xA9, 0x52, 0xCB,
          0x07, 0x84, 0x94, 0xBD, 0x73, 0x7E, 0xCC, 0x3A,
          0x65, 0x0C, 0x93, 0xC4, 0x2E, 0xD7, 0xF6, 0x49,
          0x02, 0x07, 0xAE, 0x99, 0x6B, 0x3C, 0xD1, 0xFF,
          0x1F, 0x4D, 0x63, 0x9D, 0x61, 0xDD, 0xD1, 0xE7,
          0x12, 0x8D, 0x56, 0x3C, 0x1C, 0x16, 0xC8, 0xB3,
          0x9D, 0x94, 0xD5, 0xDE, 0x5E, 0x93, 0x7F, 0xE6,
          0x5A, 0x38, 0xB8, 0x19, 0xE4, 0x69, 0xF8, 0x8C,
          0x3C, 0xE0, 0x25, 0x21, 0xE2, 0xAD, 0xA9, 0xE3,
          0x46, 0xE6, 0xA1, 0xBD, 0x51, 0x27, 0xC7, 0xBD,
          0xB2, 0x1D, 0xA2, 0xC6, 0x11, 0xE3, 0x5F, 0x6C,
          0x89, 0xE7, 0xDD, 0x66, 0xA0, 0x66, 0xCB, 0x23,
          0x3E, 0xF9, 0x6B, 0xAD, 0x1A, 0xD3, 0x99, 0x94,
          0x0C, 0xAD, 0x05, 0x5A, 0xDF, 0x5C, 0x58, 0x79,
          0xF8, 0x30, 0xA8, 0x08, 0x3C, 0xA6, 0xD6, 0xC0,
          0x58, 0x58, 0xC2, 0x66, 0x03, 0x0A, 0x33, 0xBF,
          0xB4, 0xAD, 0x83, 0xB5, 0xCC, 0x92, 0x9F, 0x2F,
          0x6C, 0xA2, 0x1E, 0x50, 0x29, 0x54, 0x2B, 0x8A,
          0xEB, 0xE7, 0x6B, 0x69, 0x44, 0xE1, 0x86, 0x3E,
          0x39, 0x47, 0x3B, 0x6E, 0xD9, 0xAD, 0x92, 0x6A,
          0x7D, 0xBF, 0xE2, 0xC7, 0x28, 0xE2, 0x3C, 0x74,
          0xF6, 0x9B, 0xB0, 0xE0, 0x54, 0xF1, 0x9F, 0x14,
          0x6C, 0xE1, 0x9E, 0x1D, 0x23, 0x6B, 0x65, 0x34,
          0x30, 0xA7, 0x1D, 0xC4, 0xA7, 0x4A, 0xE2, 0x0E,
          0x0D, 0x14, 0x13, 0x31, 0x66, 0xA1, 0x8A, 0xDF,
          0x6E, 0xF7, 0xFE, 0xD9, 0x5C, 0xC4, 0x64, 0x35,
          0xFF, 0x4C, 0x96, 0x23, 0x2B, 0xD5, 0x64, 0x03,
          0xCC, 0x39, 0xFB, 0x16, 0xAD, 0xF2, 0x24, 0xB4,
          0xFD, 0xEB, 0x8A, 0xBA, 0xF4, 0x91, 0x31, 0xBF },
        /* exponent1 */
        { 0x2F, 0x7C, 0x1C, 0x31, 0x37, 0x69, 0xCF, 0x6F,
          0x8D, 0x3E, 0x4C, 0x3F, 0xAC, 0x13, 0xFD, 0x1E,
          0xC1, 0x9E, 0x9E, 0xE9, 0x1C, 0x99, 0x44, 0x59,
          0x61, 0x01, 0x3E, 0xED, 0x4D, 0x73, 0xCD, 0x9E,
          0xED, 0xA9, 0x50, 0x30, 0x79, 0xCA, 0xD8, 0xF9,
          0xA3, 0x04, 0x7C, 0x0F, 0xD7, 0x01, 0x08, 0x2B,
          0x30, 0x4C, 0xE5, 0x01, 0x67, 0xAF, 0x77, 0x0E,
          0x4B, 0x4C, 0x71, 0x77, 0xD3, 0x99, 0xE0, 0x30,
          0x6D, 0x85, 0x76, 0x0A, 0x98, 0xAE, 0x6A, 0xA3,
          0x04, 0xC5, 0x84, 0xAC, 0xFE, 0x29, 0x9D, 0x0D,
          0x86, 0x8A, 0xFC, 0x61, 0xC8, 0x06, 0xBB, 0xAE,
          0x93, 0x08, 0xA1, 0xB5, 0x87, 0x5D, 0x80, 0x3C,
          0xD4, 0xCF, 0xD0, 0x0E, 0x9F, 0x91, 0x09, 0x7E,
          0x96, 0xD0, 0x95, 0x8A, 0x1F, 0x82, 0x16, 0x2D,
          0x96, 0xAA, 0x80, 0xFB, 0xC0, 0x73, 0xE1, 0xFF,
          0xB0, 0xB0, 0xE5, 0x10, 0x23, 0xF4, 0x31, 0xDC,
          0x94, 0xD0, 0x3F, 0x90, 0xBF, 0x92, 0x19, 0x8C,
          0x64, 0x8F, 0xEF, 0x2C, 0x1E, 0x78, 0x38, 0x4D,
          0x12, 0xFE, 0x41, 0x66, 0x6A, 0x67, 0xE5, 0xA7,
          0x42, 0x04, 0x4B, 0xAC, 0xAA, 0x9C, 0x5A, 0x49,
          0x2A, 0xE5, 0xF1, 0x8C, 0x80, 0x4D, 0x23, 0xF6,
          0xA4, 0xDE, 0x23, 0x6B, 0x6A, 0x83, 0xBC, 0x03,
          0x70, 0xD5, 0x58, 0xFC, 0xCF, 0xB2, 0x0E, 0xC1,
          0xD0, 0x49, 0x9F, 0xB1, 0x20, 0xC9, 0x3E, 0x4B,
          0x11, 0x25, 0xAC, 0x69, 0x75, 0xDC, 0x59, 0xF5,
          0xC8, 0x69, 0xE2, 0xE7, 0x81, 0xD6, 0x94, 0xAF,
          0x57, 0x6C, 0x59, 0x39, 0x0E, 0xD0, 0x20, 0x48,
          0xFF, 0x64, 0x66, 0xB7, 0x3E, 0x88, 0x18, 0x07,
          0x05, 0x51, 0xBA, 0x48, 0xAC, 0x6C, 0x1F, 0x41,
          0xF8, 0xE1, 0xA5, 0xC0, 0x53, 0x65, 0x00, 0x75,
          0xEA, 0x43, 0x17, 0x6B, 0x49, 0xDD, 0x9F, 0x3B,
          0xAC, 0xC5, 0x8C, 0xA3, 0x0C, 0xB9, 0xA4, 0xCF },
        /* exponent2 */
        { 0x57, 0x5A, 0x87, 0x09, 0x28, 0xAF, 0xD4, 0x39,
          0x71, 0xCC, 0x09, 0xD9, 0xE1, 0x55, 0x24, 0xFF,
          0xAE, 0x84, 0xF6, 0xEA, 0x0F, 0x24, 0xDA, 0x4E,
          0xB1, 0x41, 0x67, 0xFB, 0x56, 0x78, 0xB3, 0xBE,
          0x7A, 0x91, 0xCF, 0x7D, 0x1C, 0x22, 0xBA, 0x7D,
          0x6E, 0x7D, 0xD2, 0xE1, 0x1E, 0x61, 0xB3, 0x53,
          0xC8, 0xD4, 0xE7, 0x1B, 0x44, 0xA8, 0x53, 0xE3,
          0x99, 0x60, 0xF8, 0x01, 0x71, 0xD0, 0x76, 0xCF,
          0x26, 0x0F, 0x9F, 0xCB, 0xD6, 0x24, 0x2A, 0x68,
          0x9C, 0x02, 0xC4, 0x0D, 0x0B, 0xF8, 0x88, 0x2A,
          0x36, 0xB3, 0x2D, 0x75, 0x2B, 0xCB, 0x01, 0xA1,
          0xA8, 0x25, 0x6E, 0x36, 0xC2, 0x9B, 0xC0, 0xDE,
          0x62, 0xAC, 0x7E, 0x99, 0x6D, 0xB6, 0xF8, 0x2B,
          0xA3, 0x2C, 0xA1, 0x11, 0x59, 0x30, 0xFB, 0x30,
          0xEF, 0x17, 0xC5, 0x0A, 0xE3, 0xD9, 0x2D, 0xDE,
          0x0B, 0x73, 0x6B, 0xB7, 0x13, 0x14, 0xB2, 0x9C,
          0x38, 0x9F, 0xCE, 0x2D, 0x60, 0x6F, 0x88, 0xD4,
          0x22, 0x9D, 0xEB, 0x95, 0x44, 0xD2, 0xA9, 0x75,
          0x77, 0xC7, 0x95, 0x93, 0x49, 0xEE, 0xF8, 0xD3,
          0xE8, 0x4E, 0x85, 0xB1, 0x95, 0x18, 0xD8, 0xA7,
          0xB4, 0x44, 0x48, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x44, 0x68, 0xF2,
          0x52, 0x7C, 0xA4, 0xD7, 0x4B, 0xFF, 0x5B, 0x90,
          0x0D, 0x2F, 0x35, 0xB7, 0xD6, 0xA8, 0x60, 0xD0,
          0x08, 0x2E, 0x7C, 0x1B, 0x41, 0xB3, 0xEE, 0x38,
          0x94, 0xE4, 0x2A, 0x8C, 0x17, 0x89, 0x71, 0xA4,
          0x0F, 0x94, 0xAE, 0x9F, 0xB0, 0xF7, 0x03, 0xC9,
          0xD4, 0xD0, 0x45, 0xCB, 0xEB, 0x2B, 0x82, 0x63,
          0x06, 0x2F, 0xDF, 0xD2, 0x6B, 0xD5, 0xB8, 0x69,
          0x60, 0x62, 0x34, 0xE8, 0x9F, 0x2D, 0x96, 0xA5,
          0xAB, 0x04, 0x7A, 0xFF, 0x79, 0x09, 0xDA, 0xCB,
          0x64, 0xD4, 0xFD, 0x3B, 0x35, 0x11, 0xD7, 0xF1,
          0xB9, 0x41, 0xA6, 0x64, 0xDF, 0x40, 0x6D, 0xB9 }

RSA-4096 key in encoded form:


2.2. DLP Keys

The following publicly known test keys may be used for DLP-based algorithms such as DSA, DH, and Elgamal.

DLP-1024 key "testDLP1024":

        /* p */
        { 0x03, 0x0C, 0xDF, 0xC3, 0x8F, 0xC3, 0xE4, 0x21,
          0x27, 0x90, 0xB0, 0xA4, 0x1E, 0x45, 0xB4, 0xE4,
          0xE8, 0x80, 0xDE, 0x8A, 0xBF, 0xD3, 0xAE, 0xCA,
          0x0B, 0x23, 0x8F, 0xB6, 0xCD, 0x73, 0x0C, 0xC3,
          0x18, 0x76, 0x93, 0x36, 0xD5, 0xB1, 0x80, 0xB2,
          0x80, 0x2A, 0x01, 0xBE, 0x4B, 0xC1, 0xAB, 0x84,
          0xFC, 0xE2, 0xFF, 0x48, 0x9B, 0x50, 0xC2, 0xD2,
          0x9D, 0xE9, 0x1E, 0xC0, 0xE6, 0x5B, 0x60, 0x64,
          0xFD, 0x0D, 0xE5, 0x37, 0xEA, 0xBA, 0x1C, 0x6C,
          0xDD, 0x27, 0xDC, 0x30, 0x30, 0x48, 0x1E, 0x8B,
          0xB9, 0x60, 0xAA, 0x8B, 0x8A, 0xEF, 0x93, 0x35,
          0x30, 0xE6, 0xB1, 0xCC, 0x51, 0x60, 0xBB, 0xFA,
          0xAF, 0x85, 0x0F, 0xF6, 0x57, 0x81, 0x12, 0x33,
          0x7D, 0x53, 0x03, 0x4E, 0x41, 0x63, 0xDC, 0x65,
          0x03, 0xBD, 0xF8, 0x89, 0x25, 0x81, 0x14, 0x1F,
          0xAB, 0x82, 0x55, 0xB6, 0xD9, 0x72, 0x7B, 0xB3 },
        /* q */
        { 0xEC, 0x41, 0xB9, 0xC0, 0x62, 0x1D, 0x5B, 0xDC,
          0xAF, 0x11, 0xD5, 0x19, 0x8F, 0x72, 0x08, 0x88,
          0x2E, 0x65, 0xBB, 0xDF },
        /* g */
        { 0x01, 0x64, 0x87, 0xAC, 0xCF, 0xCD, 0x95, 0x50,
          0x51, 0xE0, 0x6E, 0x1C, 0x5B, 0xEF, 0x45, 0x2C,
          0x12, 0x63, 0xC7, 0x5D, 0x2B, 0x36, 0x50, 0x4F,
          0xB4, 0x27, 0x57, 0x35, 0xC2, 0x83, 0x32, 0x0B,
          0x63, 0xAC, 0x91, 0xC6, 0xF4, 0x02, 0x09, 0x32,
          0x53, 0x1C, 0xAB, 0x04, 0xB1, 0xCD, 0x72, 0xFD,
          0xF2, 0x9D, 0xE2, 0x4E, 0x27, 0x17, 0x97, 0xA7,
          0xDD, 0x21, 0x97, 0x67, 0x69, 0x31, 0xF9, 0x33,
          0x1D, 0x1F, 0x59, 0xEE, 0xE5, 0xBA, 0x2C, 0x7D,
          0x54, 0xAE, 0x13, 0x5C, 0x7F, 0x79, 0x41, 0x37,
          0xD8, 0xD8, 0x0E, 0xB6, 0x29, 0x28, 0x8E, 0x26,
          0x8A, 0x3B, 0xEB, 0xD2, 0x1F, 0x16, 0xA4, 0x03,
          0xF1, 0xD5, 0xDA, 0xD8, 0x3C, 0x1C, 0x47, 0x80,
          0x17, 0xA3, 0xCD, 0x26, 0x6F, 0x1B, 0xA4, 0x9B,
          0x89, 0x0D, 0xC0, 0x89, 0x21, 0x2E, 0x72, 0x26,
          0x1D, 0xA3, 0x67, 0xAF, 0x80, 0x3B, 0x02, 0x50 },
        /* x */
        { 0x11, 0xED, 0x99, 0x78, 0x5A, 0x81, 0x3A, 0x1B,
          0x0E, 0x96, 0xEC, 0xD3, 0x8D, 0x7F, 0x9B, 0xCE,
          0x9E, 0xBF, 0xD6, 0xFA },
        /* y */
        { 0x02, 0x20, 0xB9, 0x42, 0xC2, 0x5C, 0x44, 0xDA,
          0x52, 0xB0, 0xD1, 0x76, 0x82, 0xEA, 0xC4, 0x36,
          0xEA, 0x7E, 0x81, 0xEC, 0x9F, 0x76, 0xE1, 0x05,
          0x75, 0x32, 0xAA, 0x67, 0xEA, 0xDD, 0x04, 0xAD,
          0xB8, 0xFD, 0x61, 0x81, 0xBA, 0x0B, 0x25, 0xF2,
          0x84, 0xDA, 0xAA, 0xAA, 0x05, 0xF3, 0xC8, 0x40,
          0x34, 0xD4, 0x17, 0xD3, 0x7B, 0x6E, 0x0A, 0x63,
          0x31, 0x8A, 0x0A, 0x79, 0x1F, 0x1D, 0x0D, 0xD4,
          0xF6, 0x8A, 0xFA, 0xE3, 0x35, 0xAA, 0x5D, 0xBE,
          0xA3, 0xF2, 0xF6, 0xD6, 0xDD, 0x73, 0x09, 0x26,
          0x24, 0x7F, 0xDC, 0x4D, 0x1B, 0x82, 0xDF, 0x8C,
          0x2D, 0x87, 0xAE, 0x8D, 0x36, 0xAD, 0xB9, 0xDD,
          0x25, 0x13, 0x57, 0x8E, 0x8B, 0x99, 0xAA, 0x6A,
          0x0E, 0xDF, 0x67, 0x5F, 0xFC, 0x2F, 0xDE, 0xB6,
          0x4B, 0x26, 0xE5, 0xBE, 0xD8, 0x53, 0x2D, 0xFD,
          0x98, 0x11, 0x0F, 0xCF, 0xC9, 0xED, 0xF9, 0x38 }

DLP-1024 key in encoded form:


DLP-2048 key "testDLP2048":

        /* p */
        { 0x03, 0x2D, 0xD5, 0x53, 0x7D, 0x33, 0x7A, 0x91,
          0x34, 0x37, 0xD3, 0x5E, 0xA3, 0x43, 0x3D, 0xB0,
          0xE7, 0xB7, 0x21, 0x29, 0x8F, 0xBA, 0x87, 0x27,
          0xF2, 0xF9, 0xBE, 0x85, 0x6D, 0x6A, 0x14, 0x6B,
          0x92, 0x98, 0x8D, 0x50, 0x82, 0xF2, 0xC5, 0x72,
          0xB7, 0x70, 0x37, 0x63, 0xE8, 0x24, 0x54, 0xA7,
          0xA4, 0xA2, 0x25, 0x9B, 0x29, 0xAC, 0xE9, 0xB0,
          0xBC, 0x9B, 0x4B, 0x4D, 0x98, 0x5D, 0x6A, 0x9C,
          0x8C, 0xB6, 0x30, 0xE4, 0xE0, 0x9F, 0x48, 0x07,
          0x9F, 0x1B, 0xE8, 0x07, 0x69, 0x71, 0xDE, 0x92,
          0x68, 0x56, 0x70, 0xB9, 0x4C, 0xC9, 0x68, 0x7D,
          0xDC, 0x23, 0x3B, 0x30, 0xAF, 0x22, 0x94, 0xB0,
          0x30, 0xA6, 0xB4, 0x97, 0xF6, 0x46, 0xF9, 0x4E,
          0x1C, 0x17, 0xE8, 0x3A, 0x90, 0x4C, 0x2C, 0x1B,
          0x68, 0x44, 0x10, 0xCE, 0x04, 0x8F, 0xD9, 0xCD,
          0x64, 0x05, 0xA1, 0x4A, 0xA6, 0x8C, 0x2B, 0x8F,
          0x7F, 0x8B, 0xD0, 0x6E, 0x9F, 0x64, 0xC4, 0xBB,
          0x69, 0xCC, 0xBF, 0xBC, 0x80, 0x56, 0xAE, 0x41,
          0x4A, 0x8B, 0x2E, 0x35, 0xD6, 0x20, 0x5C, 0xDE,
          0xFB, 0x2A, 0x24, 0xA3, 0x79, 0xB8, 0xA1, 0x16,
          0x17, 0x50, 0x95, 0xFF, 0x57, 0xFF, 0x61, 0x55,
          0x12, 0x86, 0x86, 0xD9, 0x9B, 0x8E, 0x1F, 0x24,
          0x44, 0x63, 0x12, 0x71, 0xF0, 0x9C, 0x33, 0x4F,
          0x37, 0x22, 0x45, 0x2F, 0xE9, 0x26, 0x3F, 0xC3,
          0x34, 0x9E, 0x6F, 0x33, 0x07, 0xA6, 0x75, 0x4F,
          0xFD, 0x89, 0xD4, 0x43, 0x27, 0x38, 0x7D, 0xFD,
          0x40, 0x18, 0xA0, 0x2A, 0xEA, 0x6E, 0xF4, 0xC6,
          0x36, 0xA7, 0x69, 0xE7, 0xCE, 0xB7, 0x37, 0x19,
          0x19, 0x72, 0x49, 0xA8, 0x41, 0xA3, 0x0B, 0xE0,
          0xC4, 0xBE, 0x8E, 0xCB, 0x10, 0x7F, 0x38, 0x02,
          0xDC, 0x45, 0x83, 0xF8, 0xE0, 0x12, 0x94, 0xD5,
          0x2B, 0x62, 0x13, 0x67, 0xBD, 0x0C, 0x19, 0x53 },
        /* q */
        { 0x01, 0x95, 0x09, 0xB2, 0xED, 0xA8, 0x3B, 0x08,
          0x82, 0x73, 0x1B, 0x3F, 0xE8, 0x9C, 0x2E, 0xF6,
          0x9D, 0xB8, 0xD8, 0x36, 0x12, 0x34, 0x5D, 0x1A,
          0x66, 0xA5, 0x83, 0xB9, 0x11 },
        /* g */
        { 0xAC, 0x5D, 0x12, 0x0E, 0x46, 0xD2, 0xBA, 0xD6,
          0x87, 0x88, 0x47, 0xCC, 0xE8, 0x70, 0xA6, 0x9E,
          0xDC, 0xAD, 0xC8, 0x6C, 0x85, 0x9C, 0x49, 0xBA,
          0xF7, 0xAD, 0xE4, 0x1E, 0xD9, 0x36, 0x8E, 0xC2,
          0x3B, 0x64, 0x54, 0xFB, 0x60, 0xEA, 0xDA, 0xAC,
          0xC6, 0x64, 0x2A, 0x6F, 0xDD, 0x32, 0x2B, 0x99,
          0xAB, 0x14, 0x75, 0x81, 0xB2, 0x1B, 0xEB, 0xE0,
          0x62, 0x94, 0xE3, 0x82, 0x0B, 0xC5, 0x56, 0xFA,
          0x54, 0x11, 0xB3, 0x1C, 0x37, 0x3B, 0x39, 0xA6,
          0x7D, 0x51, 0x8A, 0x54, 0x77, 0x13, 0x41, 0x5C,
          0x67, 0xAC, 0xEF, 0x18, 0xBC, 0x6B, 0xA9, 0x4C,
          0x95, 0x60, 0x0C, 0xB5, 0xBD, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x84,
          0xAD, 0x58, 0xE5, 0x49, 0x1D, 0x26, 0x26, 0x1E,
          0xD4, 0xE5, 0x35, 0xAD, 0xB2, 0x2E, 0x35, 0xB0,
          0x6C, 0xC2, 0xB4, 0xC8, 0x9D, 0xA2, 0xDC, 0x63,
          0xE2, 0x9E, 0xDA, 0x06, 0xF0, 0x13, 0x80, 0x72,
          0x46, 0x55, 0x89, 0x32, 0xE9, 0xF2, 0xDC, 0x8B,
          0x93, 0x2E, 0x6B, 0x84, 0xB4, 0x07, 0xF5, 0x71,
          0x50, 0x9D, 0x06, 0xF7, 0x94, 0x30, 0xE9, 0x5D,
          0x46, 0xB2, 0xD0, 0x26, 0x14, 0x28, 0x84, 0x17,
          0x99, 0x98, 0x86, 0xA6, 0x71, 0x45, 0xED, 0x74,
          0x6A, 0x0C, 0xA8, 0xC0, 0x44, 0x41, 0x03, 0xF5,
          0x03, 0xE6, 0xBB, 0xE7, 0x45, 0x61, 0xC3, 0xAC,
          0xD1, 0x9A, 0xE5, 0x7A, 0x82, 0x67, 0xA1, 0xBC,
          0x3C, 0x49, 0x30, 0x83, 0xBB, 0x16, 0xC5, 0x97,
          0xA8, 0xAC, 0x99, 0x81, 0xFB, 0x70, 0x45, 0x87,
          0x17, 0xFB, 0x64, 0x9C, 0xA4, 0x61, 0xD4, 0x70,
          0xB4, 0xB3, 0x5E, 0x3E, 0x98, 0x64, 0xFA, 0x1A,
          0x59, 0x9B, 0xC0, 0x1E, 0x6F, 0xE9, 0x93, 0x0A,
          0x51, 0xF5, 0x79, 0xB0, 0x84, 0x01, 0x74, 0x25,
          0xB8, 0xD0, 0xA1, 0x02, 0x3F, 0xAE, 0xDD, 0xDC,
          0x57, 0xD1, 0xCE, 0x56, 0x25, 0x1C, 0xDA },
        /* x */
        { 0x64, 0x05, 0xBC, 0xDE, 0xB4, 0xF7, 0x68, 0x29,
          0x02, 0x23, 0xCE, 0x5D, 0xB5, 0x2A, 0x8A, 0x30,
          0xC2, 0x8A, 0xDC, 0x78, 0x02, 0xD9, 0x68, 0x1E,
          0xDC, 0xB4, 0x34, 0xE5 },
        /* y */
        { 0x02, 0x30, 0x37, 0xB2, 0xD9, 0xC9, 0x9E, 0x75,
          0x3F, 0xD2, 0x79, 0xBF, 0xFC, 0xDE, 0xE9, 0x92,
          0x9C, 0x9B, 0xA1, 0xDE, 0xAA, 0x97, 0x0B, 0x03,
          0x72, 0xAF, 0x73, 0x35, 0xE5, 0x50, 0x21, 0x37,
          0x42, 0x99, 0xF3, 0x61, 0x02, 0x7C, 0x8D, 0x65,
          0xD5, 0x7A, 0xFB, 0x4D, 0x3C, 0xCD, 0x2B, 0x47,
          0x24, 0xB5, 0x3F, 0x09, 0xEB, 0xE2, 0x8C, 0xBF,
          0x49, 0x9F, 0x6B, 0x4F, 0x86, 0x33, 0x49, 0x19,
          0x8B, 0x24, 0xB2, 0xAB, 0x0D, 0x4C, 0xEC, 0xB6,
          0xC4, 0xFD, 0x7E, 0x67, 0x2D, 0x4B, 0x2A, 0xCA,
          0x9D, 0x39, 0xE3, 0xAE, 0x20, 0xF8, 0xEC, 0xD7,
          0xFD, 0x77, 0x10, 0x7C, 0xE5, 0x4A, 0x66, 0xDD,
          0xEE, 0x97, 0x44, 0xE4, 0x8C, 0xF8, 0xDD, 0x6B,
          0xA9, 0xA5, 0x28, 0xC7, 0x51, 0xF0, 0x08, 0xC6,
          0x6F, 0x19, 0x2A, 0x20, 0x4E, 0xC7, 0xF9, 0x38,
          0x76, 0x91, 0x01, 0x79, 0xB1, 0x31, 0x1D, 0x97,
          0x5B, 0x49, 0x25, 0xC5, 0x69, 0x90, 0x29, 0xFB,
          0xD1, 0x14, 0xA5, 0xE7, 0x90, 0x19, 0x0A, 0x4D,
          0x38, 0x9B, 0x94, 0x8F, 0x8F, 0x57, 0x6A, 0x8E,
          0x45, 0xA5, 0x6B, 0xE0, 0xD4, 0xFD, 0x6C, 0xEA,
          0x63, 0x1C, 0x5F, 0x53, 0x7E, 0xF9, 0x18, 0x59,
          0x8E, 0x30, 0x52, 0x2F, 0x93, 0x64, 0x50, 0x66,
          0x18, 0xC0, 0x45, 0x84, 0xCA, 0x6F, 0xD0, 0x75,
          0x12, 0x12, 0x21, 0xA4, 0x60, 0xF9, 0x80, 0xC5,
          0x4F, 0x80, 0x1D, 0x7D, 0x6D, 0x21, 0x9D, 0xF2,
          0xA1, 0xDB, 0xEA, 0x3C, 0x8A, 0x03, 0xA0, 0x9F,
          0x6B, 0xE9, 0x1B, 0xB6, 0x29, 0x6D, 0x79, 0x1A,
          0x2A, 0x83, 0x80, 0xE8, 0x9D, 0x0C, 0xDD, 0x26,
          0xF7, 0x66, 0x3E, 0x06, 0x9A, 0x83, 0x31, 0x49,
          0xAD, 0x44, 0x2B, 0x2C, 0x13, 0x98, 0x87, 0x71,
          0xF6, 0x54, 0xB8, 0x1F, 0x50, 0xE0, 0xD7, 0x26,
          0x42, 0x47, 0xD6, 0x78, 0xEA, 0xEB, 0xB0, 0xF9 }

DLP-2048 key in encoded form:


DLP-4096 key "testDLP4096":

        /* p */
        { 0x31, 0xD2, 0x55, 0x5F, 0xB2, 0xE8, 0x89, 0xF3,
          0x20, 0x83, 0x78, 0x79, 0x5A, 0xF4, 0x88, 0x5B,
          0x62, 0xD0, 0x13, 0x58, 0xBD, 0xF1, 0x17, 0xC0,
          0xB8, 0xAD, 0x4D, 0x22, 0xBE, 0x62, 0xCC, 0x93,
          0x34, 0x5B, 0x6E, 0xA8, 0xFC, 0x54, 0x0B, 0x56,
          0x8F, 0x50, 0x95, 0xBB, 0xA0, 0x90, 0x3E, 0xC5,
          0xEE, 0xD8, 0xC6, 0xAE, 0x52, 0x5D, 0x9A, 0xA7,
          0xE4, 0x99, 0x79, 0xF0, 0x8E, 0x6C, 0x4E, 0xDB,
          0xF5, 0x6A, 0x93, 0x29, 0x09, 0xA0, 0x6B, 0x6D,
          0x1E, 0x07, 0x57, 0x95, 0x3F, 0x90, 0x5B, 0x55,
          0x52, 0x99, 0x31, 0x5F, 0x42, 0x48, 0xF5, 0x4B,
          0x81, 0xEF, 0x5F, 0x05, 0x4D, 0x8D, 0x82, 0x4E,
          0x12, 0xAE, 0xAB, 0x82, 0x4B, 0x2C, 0x2F, 0x4C,
          0x5E, 0xDE, 0x04, 0x60, 0x30, 0xDC, 0x3B, 0x16,
          0xC2, 0x80, 0x59, 0x56, 0x85, 0xCA, 0x38, 0xC6,
          0xE7, 0x13, 0xD8, 0x2E, 0x4D, 0x1B, 0xFC, 0xD3,
          0x3D, 0x87, 0xDE, 0x26, 0x95, 0x4B, 0xA0, 0x05,
          0xBC, 0x42, 0x17, 0x77, 0x39, 0xB2, 0x0F, 0x1E,
          0x46, 0x13, 0x80, 0x79, 0xED, 0xE5, 0x91, 0x64,
          0xCE, 0x67, 0x23, 0xE3, 0x51, 0xE4, 0xB2, 0xFC,
          0xD5, 0x0D, 0x6E, 0xAB, 0xB4, 0x5D, 0xA8, 0x8F,
          0xA4, 0xCD, 0x56, 0x24, 0x8A, 0xEA, 0x44, 0xAA,
          0x2E, 0x41, 0xB8, 0xFF, 0x28, 0xBD, 0x37, 0x88,
          0x00, 0x8C, 0x2E, 0xEF, 0x4B, 0xE1, 0x90, 0xA0,
          0xAB, 0x5D, 0x7D, 0x80, 0x3C, 0x9A, 0xBE, 0xD7,
          0xC7, 0xB7, 0x74, 0xB5, 0x0F, 0xA8, 0x38, 0x0D,
          0xD7, 0xFE, 0x2B, 0x3D, 0x84, 0x85, 0xA3, 0xD8,
          0x80, 0xEF, 0x51, 0xD5, 0x6B, 0x41, 0x1F, 0x73,
          0xE6, 0x59, 0xE7, 0x9E, 0x0B, 0xFF, 0x32, 0x14,
          0x53, 0x57, 0x3E, 0xC5, 0x0D, 0x9D, 0xD4, 0xD0,
          0xAE, 0xCA, 0x30, 0x9D, 0x39, 0xE4, 0x38, 0x86,
          0x27, 0x95, 0x03, 0xEF, 0x94, 0x98, 0x51, 0xE3,
          0xD4, 0xDC, 0x71, 0xAB, 0xF3, 0xA7, 0x88, 0x63,
          0xB9, 0x75, 0xC1, 0x06, 0x24, 0xCB, 0x51, 0x73,
          0x4C, 0xDB, 0x58, 0x2A, 0x3A, 0x48, 0xC6, 0xD7,
          0x08, 0x47, 0x83, 0x6E, 0x80, 0x8B, 0x0E, 0x22,
          0x48, 0xB8, 0xFA, 0x8A, 0x8C, 0x55, 0xA3, 0x57,
          0xE8, 0x30, 0x54, 0xD6, 0x48, 0xB2, 0xCC, 0xA5,
          0xB8, 0xA3, 0xB1, 0x68, 0x91, 0xAD, 0x52, 0x35,
          0x6E, 0x92, 0x87, 0x1A, 0xF5, 0x99, 0xA5, 0x6E,
          0x90, 0xC9, 0x34, 0x33, 0xA5, 0x4A, 0x52, 0xFD,
          0x42, 0xE2, 0xBE, 0x65, 0x15, 0xC8, 0xCE, 0xC3,
          0x73, 0x94, 0x07, 0x0C, 0x26, 0xCA, 0xC5, 0xCA,
          0x8C, 0x26, 0x1D, 0x2D, 0x50, 0x21, 0x88, 0x6B,
          0xB9, 0x4C, 0x4E, 0x99, 0xFA, 0x78, 0xD2, 0x53,
          0x7C, 0xCA, 0xF5, 0xA1, 0x92, 0xC9, 0xC2, 0xAF,
          0x77, 0xA0, 0x78, 0x33, 0x45, 0x1F, 0x12, 0x2D,
          0xA9, 0xE6, 0xFD, 0x7B, 0x83, 0x92, 0x12, 0x9E,
          0xE4, 0x9A, 0x56, 0x07, 0x5F, 0x1A, 0x37, 0x05,
          0x00, 0x4C, 0x06, 0xBD, 0x36, 0x7F, 0xBF, 0xCB,
          0x9A, 0x07, 0x4A, 0x02, 0xE1, 0x65, 0x25, 0x27,
          0x2D, 0xF9, 0xD3, 0x33, 0xCB, 0x91, 0x9B, 0x5B,
          0x61, 0x14, 0x07, 0xF7, 0xF7, 0xA4, 0xD9, 0xE1,
          0x1E, 0xD2, 0x85, 0xA4, 0x75, 0x95, 0xEA, 0x74,
          0x0C, 0xBF, 0xA1, 0x6B, 0xD2, 0xFB, 0xB8, 0x0A,
          0xD2, 0xA5, 0xE6, 0x36, 0x04, 0x47, 0x80, 0x8B,
          0x1E, 0xC5, 0x07, 0x58, 0xB8, 0x56, 0xF6, 0xDC,
          0xA4, 0x25, 0xD9, 0x36, 0xB4, 0x9E, 0xEA, 0x5B,
          0x7E, 0xAA, 0x40, 0x79, 0xA3, 0x15, 0x3D, 0xED,
          0x32, 0x12, 0x76, 0x4D, 0x00, 0x06, 0xF0, 0x09,
          0x36, 0x28, 0x4B, 0x96, 0xD6, 0x8B, 0xC9, 0x74,
          0xFD, 0xAF, 0x77, 0xB6, 0x45, 0x78, 0x36, 0x38,
          0xC5, 0x1E, 0xB1, 0x18, 0x8A, 0x91, 0x72, 0xA0,
          0x37, 0xDE, 0x49, 0xDA, 0x48, 0x1A, 0x9B },
        /* q */
        { 0x01, 0xFF, 0x30, 0x36, 0x06, 0x89, 0x3F, 0x53,
          0xBE, 0x41, 0x12, 0xF9, 0x60, 0x18, 0xF9, 0x9C,
          0xCF, 0xB9, 0x67, 0x82, 0x7E, 0x49, 0x40, 0x36,
          0x98, 0x2F, 0xAF, 0x24, 0x06, 0xD2, 0x5D, 0x8B,
          0xCC, 0x52, 0x48, 0xDB, 0x2B, 0xCB, 0x13 },
        /* g */
        { 0x19, 0x89, 0x03, 0x1B, 0x12, 0xB8, 0x83, 0x5D,
          0x66, 0x5C, 0x9F, 0x42, 0x31, 0x05, 0x24, 0xA0,
          0x64, 0x9E, 0xEC, 0x4C, 0x2C, 0x4A, 0xBA, 0xAC,
          0xAD, 0x5D, 0x54, 0x8C, 0xE0, 0xFA, 0xF5, 0x3E,
          0xCA, 0x38, 0x67, 0xAA, 0xE6, 0x18, 0x7D, 0x5F,
          0x63, 0xC0, 0xF6, 0x6B, 0x56, 0xE8, 0x00, 0xAD,
          0x5D, 0x09, 0x58, 0x8C, 0xA4, 0x25, 0xBC, 0xE6,
          0xBD, 0x33, 0x97, 0x6B, 0xBA, 0xC9, 0x68, 0x63,
          0xD1, 0xC2, 0x6E, 0x4F, 0x48, 0x27, 0x67, 0x05,
          0x63, 0xFB, 0x9C, 0xA5, 0x16, 0x5C, 0x3C, 0x9F,
          0x14, 0x1D, 0x2E, 0x7D, 0x77, 0xA6, 0x11, 0x95,
          0x55, 0x4D, 0x9C, 0xE6, 0xA3, 0x25, 0xB9, 0x34,
          0x2A, 0x5F, 0x0A, 0xDE, 0x00, 0x7E, 0xED, 0x69,
          0xF3, 0x2C, 0x78, 0x67, 0x8C, 0x5F, 0x30, 0x2C,
          0xAF, 0x97, 0x62, 0xFC, 0xC0, 0xD6, 0x22, 0xD2,
          0xBF, 0xA5, 0xFF, 0x72, 0x4B, 0x59, 0x49, 0x21,
          0x1C, 0x66, 0x2E, 0xD3, 0xD8, 0x14, 0x1E, 0xAF,
          0xAB, 0xB6, 0x28, 0x65, 0xC2, 0xF2, 0xA6, 0x44,
          0xA5, 0xDC, 0x34, 0x0F, 0x24, 0x0F, 0x73, 0x61,
          0x53, 0x3C, 0x65, 0x64, 0xCD, 0x9E, 0x33, 0xB6,
          0x58, 0xC1, 0x39, 0x71, 0xEC, 0xDA, 0x66, 0x2E,
          0x1C, 0x79, 0xB5, 0x88, 0x7E, 0xA2, 0x46, 0x1E,
          0x35, 0xA6, 0xBA, 0x2B, 0xD0, 0x20, 0x80, 0xF8,
          0xE5, 0xC6, 0xC8, 0xBE, 0x7B, 0xFB, 0xB9, 0x6C,
          0xF4, 0x1F, 0x07, 0xD5, 0xBD, 0xC9, 0x65, 0x00,
          0xB5, 0x6C, 0x53, 0x4B, 0x70, 0x36, 0x99, 0x56,
          0x8F, 0x70, 0x0B, 0x9A, 0xD5, 0xEF, 0xFC, 0x1E,
          0xE8, 0xBE, 0x2F, 0x70, 0x39, 0x50, 0xAC, 0xD3,
          0xB8, 0x8C, 0x24, 0x3F, 0x82, 0xA2, 0xE9, 0xF5,
          0x01, 0xE3, 0x87, 0x84, 0x4E, 0x77, 0xAA, 0x90,
          0x2D, 0xC0, 0xD7, 0xD9, 0x6E, 0xBE, 0x4E, 0x4B,
          0xC8, 0xB3, 0xAB, 0x09, 0x64, 0xAC, 0x28, 0xB1,
          0x54, 0xCD, 0x15, 0x35, 0xA4, 0x06, 0x55, 0x40,
          0x83, 0x39, 0x8E, 0x0B, 0xE6, 0xAC, 0x9B, 0x26,
          0xFF, 0x9A, 0xF4, 0xC2, 0xCD, 0xA9, 0x55, 0x17,
          0x51, 0x15, 0x2F, 0xBD, 0x4C, 0xC2, 0xD7, 0xF1,
          0x9A, 0x9E, 0x7F, 0x41, 0xA5, 0x6E, 0xBB, 0xEF,
          0x3C, 0xD5, 0x1D, 0xF6, 0xB1, 0x08, 0x48, 0x06,
          0x15, 0xA8, 0xF3, 0xED, 0x99, 0x9F, 0xEC, 0x7F,
          0x0F, 0x3C, 0x53, 0x87, 0x55, 0x27, 0x70, 0x74,
          0xB3, 0xA8, 0x0D, 0x4B, 0x6A, 0x84, 0x71, 0x26,
          0xE1, 0xB9, 0xDF, 0xE2, 0x38, 0x96, 0xF5, 0xB1,
          0x97, 0x53, 0x83, 0x9B, 0x18, 0xA7, 0xE6, 0x69,
          0x3E, 0x9F, 0xB1, 0x3D, 0x11, 0x58, 0xA3, 0xAB,
          0xAF, 0x4E, 0x04, 0x62, 0x7D, 0xEB, 0x96, 0x12,
          0xD9, 0x59, 0x4D, 0x33, 0x26, 0x1A, 0xE5, 0x93,
          0x67, 0xFF, 0xCA, 0xDE, 0xC3, 0xB5, 0xAF, 0xFF,
          0xCB, 0xDF, 0xED, 0x45, 0x0B, 0x53, 0x8B, 0xC8,
          0xD8, 0x8D, 0x29, 0x8E, 0xDD, 0x27, 0xB3, 0x36,
          0xE8, 0xF5, 0xEE, 0x6D, 0x46, 0x1F, 0x57, 0x40,
          0x3B, 0xB4, 0x6D, 0xBC, 0x04, 0xB6, 0xD9, 0x00,
          0xC7, 0x48, 0x72, 0x8D, 0xE7, 0x8F, 0x68, 0x8F,
          0xCD, 0x9A, 0x90, 0x29, 0x4E, 0xEA, 0x95, 0xE7,
          0xCE, 0x48, 0x2A, 0x39, 0xB0, 0x62, 0xE8, 0x04,
          0xFC, 0xCB, 0x6E, 0xF7, 0xD1, 0x35, 0x94, 0xB9,
          0x35, 0x0E, 0xC2, 0x0F, 0xB5, 0x02, 0xA8, 0x4C,
          0x4E, 0x30, 0x96, 0xC5, 0x90, 0xAA, 0x29, 0x63,
          0x78, 0x79, 0x0D, 0x81, 0x9E, 0xC2, 0xC5, 0x0D,
          0xD5, 0xF5, 0x46, 0xF5, 0xE3, 0xE4, 0xD9, 0x69,
          0xEC, 0x33, 0xDA, 0x45, 0x52, 0x14, 0xD7, 0xA0,
          0x5C, 0xAA, 0xF8, 0x87, 0xB5, 0xE8, 0x9B, 0x09,
          0xE6, 0xB2, 0xCF, 0x0D, 0x56, 0x43, 0xC3, 0x85,
          0x48, 0x01, 0x8A, 0x87, 0x7B, 0x5A, 0x17, 0x72,
          0x40, 0x2B, 0x4B, 0x29, 0xF3, 0x5C, 0x8B },
        /* x */
        { 0x01, 0xA7, 0x77, 0x11, 0xB8, 0x9D, 0x45, 0x53,
          0x27, 0x29, 0x01, 0xBA, 0x09, 0x5A, 0x7F, 0xFC,
          0x14, 0x9C, 0x8C, 0x05, 0xB0, 0x2F, 0xDD, 0x04,
          0x0D, 0xC9, 0x98, 0x97, 0x11, 0x5B, 0xCE, 0xC3,
          0xE6, 0x14, 0xF2, 0x55, 0x7F, 0x9C, 0x0C },
        /* y */
        { 0x2A, 0x49, 0x11, 0x73, 0x18, 0x65, 0x11, 0x4B,
          0x8A, 0x6C, 0x6F, 0x8E, 0x40, 0x7D, 0x55, 0xC3,
          0x9A, 0xB7, 0x10, 0xBB, 0x45, 0xCA, 0xBA, 0x94,
          0xE6, 0xB1, 0x85, 0x87, 0xD2, 0x8F, 0x9C, 0x6C,
          0x69, 0x4C, 0x01, 0x9A, 0x09, 0xB2, 0x6F, 0x44,
          0x8C, 0x2A, 0x33, 0x55, 0xA5, 0x67, 0xB1, 0xA0,
          0xC8, 0x61, 0x82, 0x2E, 0x19, 0xC6, 0xFA, 0xDE,
          0x8C, 0x43, 0xAA, 0x61, 0xC3, 0xBF, 0x39, 0xB6,
          0x95, 0xE2, 0xA2, 0x74, 0x55, 0x2F, 0xE8, 0x5C,
          0x76, 0x5B, 0x8A, 0x1E, 0xF7, 0x8D, 0x1B, 0x42,
          0x97, 0xEF, 0x4C, 0x31, 0x3F, 0xE8, 0xDB, 0xF2,
          0x22, 0x11, 0x30, 0xC5, 0xEE, 0x91, 0xF9, 0xE3,
          0xD3, 0xBB, 0xF2, 0x9C, 0xC4, 0x7B, 0x1B, 0xAB,
          0xAF, 0x17, 0x9C, 0xBA, 0x8B, 0xD4, 0x5B, 0xA9,
          0x61, 0xD7, 0x0A, 0xB6, 0xBD, 0x7A, 0xA0, 0x75,
          0xFB, 0x2A, 0x15, 0x33, 0x14, 0xFC, 0x3B, 0x2C,
          0x3B, 0x89, 0x86, 0x6E, 0x68, 0x2C, 0x7A, 0x95,
          0x8D, 0x3B, 0x78, 0x87, 0xF0, 0xD7, 0xD8, 0xF4,
          0x0D, 0xF5, 0x5E, 0x6E, 0x51, 0x5D, 0x1F, 0xBB,
          0x88, 0x77, 0x8E, 0xAF, 0x8E, 0xF1, 0xE8, 0xF3,
          0x11, 0x9A, 0x74, 0x98, 0x80, 0x66, 0x7C, 0xA8,
          0xEC, 0xC4, 0x6B, 0xFA, 0x10, 0xBA, 0xC4, 0x67,
          0x4B, 0x77, 0xB9, 0x4E, 0xB0, 0xE9, 0x2A, 0x76,
          0xA6, 0xC0, 0x81, 0x59, 0xD1, 0xF4, 0x06, 0xB6,
          0x68, 0x5F, 0xE8, 0x5B, 0x41, 0xA8, 0xD8, 0x04,
          0x93, 0x91, 0x8A, 0xF5, 0x29, 0x9A, 0x1C, 0x6A,
          0x11, 0x3D, 0xE2, 0xF9, 0x74, 0x27, 0xCD, 0x87,
          0xC4, 0xBA, 0x28, 0x2A, 0x65, 0x5D, 0x6A, 0x4E,
          0xE7, 0x15, 0x01, 0x2E, 0x0C, 0x75, 0x0C, 0xC3,
          0xB1, 0xE5, 0xC0, 0xF2, 0x2B, 0xC8, 0x2A, 0xD2,
          0x3E, 0xB4, 0xC0, 0xEC, 0xF4, 0x80, 0xAC, 0xB7,
          0xD7, 0x31, 0x21, 0x57, 0xDB, 0xB7, 0xE0, 0xE5,
          0x23, 0x78, 0xE9, 0xFF, 0x46, 0xEE, 0xEF, 0x04,
          0xAF, 0x47, 0x4F, 0x2C, 0x4C, 0x55, 0xDF, 0xFF,
          0xCF, 0x79, 0x8B, 0x90, 0x3F, 0x49, 0xEA, 0x43,
          0xD0, 0x60, 0xEF, 0x23, 0xED, 0x7D, 0x63, 0x89,
          0x7B, 0xCB, 0x2F, 0xF1, 0x39, 0xAB, 0x0D, 0x80,
          0x5F, 0xF7, 0x85, 0x87, 0xCC, 0xE6, 0xF1, 0xF2,
          0xCE, 0x39, 0x07, 0xBB, 0xDA, 0x5A, 0x67, 0x39,
          0xCF, 0x62, 0x47, 0x2C, 0xA2, 0x11, 0x85, 0x18,
          0xDA, 0xFE, 0x90, 0x7C, 0x4B, 0xEA, 0x88, 0xDC,
          0xAE, 0x39, 0x01, 0x07, 0x3A, 0xB6, 0xCC, 0x60,
          0xA5, 0x60, 0xC9, 0xA4, 0xD6, 0x33, 0x1E, 0x29,
          0xF8, 0x8A, 0xFE, 0xB9, 0x99, 0xA6, 0x4A, 0xE4,
          0xDB, 0xC7, 0xBF, 0x02, 0x22, 0xA9, 0xD4, 0x19,
          0x3A, 0x20, 0xE8, 0x1B, 0x40, 0x30, 0xF3, 0x28,
          0xE3, 0xA9, 0xCB, 0x7C, 0x92, 0x62, 0x04, 0x98,
          0x47, 0x4F, 0xCB, 0x64, 0xDA, 0xE1, 0xBB, 0xD7,
          0x9E, 0x4A, 0x9C, 0x04, 0x76, 0x47, 0x5E, 0xF0,
          0xF9, 0xAB, 0x5E, 0x89, 0xAE, 0x4D, 0x5A, 0xAE,
          0x9F, 0x87, 0x60, 0x21, 0xFA, 0x0B, 0xB2, 0x82,
          0x17, 0xCF, 0x27, 0x8D, 0x3A, 0xE9, 0xED, 0xDC,
          0x1C, 0x57, 0xBE, 0x5E, 0x17, 0xDC, 0x0D, 0x94,
          0x8E, 0x02, 0xFC, 0x05, 0xFE, 0xDF, 0x74, 0x07,
          0x05, 0xD8, 0xDC, 0xDC, 0x9D, 0x4B, 0x9C, 0xE6,
          0x80, 0x93, 0x65, 0x74, 0x94, 0x01, 0x5E, 0x05,
          0x17, 0x78, 0x96, 0xF1, 0x29, 0xFD, 0xFF, 0xB5,
          0xFF, 0x4A, 0xF5, 0x7C, 0x64, 0xD1, 0x51, 0xEC,
          0xEC, 0x8E, 0x74, 0x7B, 0x72, 0x67, 0xFA, 0x2D,
          0x8C, 0xF5, 0x97, 0x5E, 0x84, 0xC2, 0xEF, 0xAC,
          0x18, 0xDF, 0x16, 0xF2, 0xD8, 0x98, 0x0C, 0xE4,
          0x09, 0xC0, 0x3A, 0x1B, 0xC2, 0xB9, 0x5B, 0x34,
          0x34, 0x18, 0x98, 0xC6, 0xA5, 0xC6, 0x28, 0x54,
          0xB8, 0x53, 0x33, 0xE1, 0x4A, 0xA8, 0xE9 }

DLP-4096 key in encoded form:


2.3. ECDLP Keys

The following publicly known test keys may be used for ECDLP-based algorithms such as ECDSA and ECDH.

P256 key "testECCP256":

        /* qx */
        { 0x42, 0x25, 0x48, 0xF8, 0x8F, 0xB7, 0x82, 0xFF,
          0xB5, 0xEC, 0xA3, 0x74, 0x44, 0x52, 0xC7, 0x2A,
          0x1E, 0x55, 0x8F, 0xBD, 0x6F, 0x73, 0xBE, 0x5E,
          0x48, 0xE9, 0x32, 0x32, 0xCC, 0x45, 0xC5, 0xB1 },
        /* qy */
        { 0x6C, 0x4C, 0xD1, 0x0C, 0x4C, 0xB8, 0xD5, 0xB8,
          0xA1, 0x71, 0x39, 0xE9, 0x48, 0x82, 0xC8, 0x99,
          0x25, 0x72, 0x99, 0x34, 0x25, 0xF4, 0x14, 0x19,
          0xAB, 0x7E, 0x90, 0xA4, 0x2A, 0x49, 0x42, 0x72 },
        /* d */
        { 0xE6, 0xCB, 0x5B, 0xDD, 0x80, 0xAA, 0x45, 0xAE,
          0x9C, 0x95, 0xE8, 0xC1, 0x54, 0x76, 0x67, 0x9F,
          0xFE, 0xC9, 0x53, 0xC1, 0x68, 0x51, 0xE7, 0x11,
          0xE7, 0x43, 0x93, 0x95, 0x89, 0xC6, 0x4F, 0xC1 }

P256 key in encoded form:


P384 key "testECCP384":

        /* qx */
        { 0x5B, 0x09, 0x01, 0xB8, 0x85, 0x23, 0x29, 0x6E,
          0xB9, 0x19, 0xD5, 0x0F, 0xFA, 0x1A, 0x9C, 0xB3,
          0x74, 0xBC, 0x4D, 0x40, 0x95, 0x86, 0x28, 0x2B,
          0xFE, 0xCA, 0x11, 0xB1, 0xD9, 0x5A, 0xDB, 0xB5,
          0x47, 0x34, 0xAF, 0x57, 0x0B, 0xF8, 0x2B, 0x72,
          0x28, 0xCF, 0x22, 0x6B, 0xCF, 0x4C, 0x25, 0xDD },
        /* qy */
        { 0xBC, 0xFE, 0x3B, 0x1A, 0x3A, 0xD3, 0x94, 0x30,
          0xEF, 0xF7, 0x63, 0xE1, 0xD6, 0x8D, 0x2E, 0x15,
          0x1D, 0x91, 0x72, 0x0B, 0x77, 0x95, 0xB5, 0x8D,
          0xA6, 0xB3, 0x46, 0x39, 0x61, 0x3A, 0x8F, 0xB9,
          0xB5, 0xA8, 0xDA, 0x48, 0xC6, 0x74, 0x71, 0x17,
          0xF9, 0x91, 0x9E, 0x84, 0x24, 0xF3, 0x7E, 0xC8 },
        /* d */
        { 0xE2, 0x56, 0x33, 0x28, 0xDF, 0xAB, 0xF6, 0x81,
          0x88, 0x60, 0x6B, 0x91, 0x32, 0x42, 0x81, 0xC1,
          0xD5, 0x8A, 0x44, 0x56, 0x43, 0x1B, 0x09, 0xD5,
          0x10, 0xB3, 0x5F, 0xEC, 0xC9, 0xF3, 0x07, 0xCA,
          0x18, 0x22, 0x84, 0x6F, 0xA2, 0x67, 0x13, 0x71,
          0xA9, 0xA8, 0x1B, 0xAC, 0x0E, 0x35, 0x74, 0x9D }

P384 key in encoded form:


P521 key "testECCP521":

        /* qx */
        { 0x01, 0xD0, 0xFD, 0x72, 0x57, 0xA8, 0x4C, 0x74,
          0x7F, 0x56, 0x25, 0x75, 0xC0, 0x73, 0x85, 0xDB,
          0xEB, 0xF2, 0xF5, 0x2B, 0xEA, 0x58, 0x08, 0x3D,
          0xB8, 0x2F, 0xDD, 0x15, 0x31, 0xD8, 0xAA, 0xE3,
          0xCC, 0x87, 0x5F, 0xF0, 0x2F, 0xF7, 0xFA, 0x2D,
          0xA2, 0x60, 0xD8, 0xEB, 0x62, 0xD6, 0xD2, 0xF5,
          0xD6, 0x49, 0x27, 0x8E, 0x32, 0x17, 0x36, 0xA0,
          0x62, 0x8C, 0xBB, 0xB3, 0x03, 0x08, 0xB6, 0xE6,
          0x18, 0xDB },
        /* qy */
        { 0xF6, 0x2A, 0xD2, 0x04, 0xC6, 0x46, 0x03, 0x59,
          0xBC, 0x81, 0x8A, 0xB8, 0x96, 0x1B, 0xF0, 0xF0,
          0xFC, 0x0E, 0xC5, 0xAA, 0xE8, 0xA4, 0x28, 0x17,
          0x3C, 0xE5, 0x6F, 0x00, 0xDE, 0x9B, 0x15, 0x7C,
          0x1E, 0x5C, 0x82, 0xC6, 0x4F, 0x56, 0x2F, 0xCA,
          0xDE, 0xFC, 0x4A, 0x4C, 0x28, 0xF6, 0xD3, 0x42,
          0xCF, 0x3E, 0xF6, 0x16, 0xFC, 0x82, 0xD3, 0x3B,
          0x72, 0x85, 0xC9, 0x21, 0xF2, 0xBF, 0x36, 0xFD,
          0xD8 },
        /* d */
        { 0x01, 0xD9, 0x24, 0xDC, 0xCA, 0x0A, 0x88, 0x7F,
          0x8D, 0x99, 0x76, 0x7A, 0x37, 0xD8, 0x74, 0xE6,
          0x37, 0xA1, 0x2C, 0xCB, 0x47, 0x7D, 0x6E, 0x08,
          0x66, 0x53, 0x56, 0x69, 0x4D, 0x68, 0xB7, 0x65,
          0x5E, 0x50, 0x69, 0x63, 0x8F, 0xDE, 0x7B, 0x45,
          0xC8, 0x54, 0x01, 0x3D, 0xC7, 0x7A, 0x35, 0xB1,
          0x86, 0x55, 0xB8, 0x4C, 0x96, 0x6A, 0x60, 0x22,
          0x0D, 0x40, 0xF9, 0x1E, 0xD9, 0xF5, 0x14, 0x58,
          0x02, 0xEA }

P521 key in encoded form:


3. IANA Considerations

This document has no IANA actions.

4. Security Considerations

The intent of publishing known keys in this form is that they may be easily recognised as being test keys when encountered. It should go without saying that these keys should never be used or relied upon in production environments.

The authors await the inevitable Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs).

Authors' Addresses

Peter Gutmann
University of Auckland
Department of Computer Science
New Zealand
Corey Bonnell